Do women fare worse: A metaanalysis of gender differences in traumatic brain injury outcome

E. Farace, W. M. Alves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

267 Scopus citations


Object. The purpose of this metaanalysis was to investigate possible gender differences in traumatic brain injury (TBI) sequelae. The case fatality rates in patients after TBI have previously been shown to be significantly higher in women as compared with men. Methods. A quantitative review of published studies of TBI outcome revealed eight studies (20 outcome variables) of TBI, in which outcome was reported separately for men and women. Conclusions. Outcome was worse in women than in men for 85% of the measured variables, with an average effect size of -0.15. Although clinical opinion is often that women tend to experience better outcomes than men after TBI, the opposite pattern was suggested in the results of this metaanalysis. However, this conclusion is limited by the fact that, in only a small percentage of the total published reports on TBI outcome, was outcome described separately for each sex. A careful, prospective study of sex differences in TBI outcome is clearly needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-545
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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