Exploring the dynamic responses of a material is of importance to both understanding its fundamental physics at high frequencies and potential device applications. Here we develop a phase-field model for predicting the dynamics of ferroelectric materials and study the dynamic responses of ferroelectric domains and domain walls subjected to an ultrafast electric-field pulse. We discover a transition of domain evolution mechanisms from pure domain growth at a relatively low field to combined nucleation and growth of domains at a high field. We derive analytical models for the two regimes which allow us to extract the effective mass and damping coefficient of ferroelectric domain walls. The exhibition of two regimes for the ferroelectric domain dynamics at low and high electric fields is expected to be a general phenomenon that would appear for ferroic domains under other ultrafast stimuli. The present Letter also offers a general framework for studying domain dynamics and obtaining fundamental properties of domain walls and thus for manipulating the dynamic functionalities of ferroelectric materials.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)