The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK) is a potent lung carcinogen in the A/J mouse model. Here we identified and validated, using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry and immunoblotting, proteins that are differentially expressed in the lungs of mice treated with NNK versus vehicle control treatment. We also determined whether protein levels in the lungs of NNK-treated mice could be further modulated by the chemopreventive agent 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC). The proteins identified in this study are SEC14-like 3, dihydropyrimidinase-like 2, proteasome subunit α type 5, annexin A5, 14-3-3 protein isoforms (θ, ε, σ, and ζ), Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor α, myosin light polypeptide 6, tubulin-α-1, vimentin, Atp5b protein, α-1-antitrypsin, and Clara cell 10 kDa protein (CC10). Among those proteins, we demonstrated for the first time that 14-3-3 isoforms (θ, ε, and σ) and annexin A5 were significantly down-regulated in mouse lung adenocarcinoma induced by NNK and were recovered by p-XSC. These proteins are involved in a variety of biological functions that are critical in lung carcinogenesis. Identification of these proteins in surrogate tissue in future studies would be highly useful in early detection of lung adenocarcinoma and clinical chemoprevention trials.
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