In view of the practical importance of the drift-flux model for two-phase flow analysis in general and in the analysis of nuclear-reactor transients and accidents in particular, the distribution parameter and the drift velocity have been studied for downward two-phase flows. The constitutive equation that specifies the distribution parameter in the downward flow has been derived by taking into account the effect of the downward mixture volumetric flux on the phase distribution. It was assumed that the constitutive equation for the drift velocity developed by Ishii for a vertical upward churn-turbulent flow determined the drift velocity for the downward flow over all of flow regimes. To evaluate the drift-flux model with newly developed constitutive equations, area-averaged void fraction measurement has been extensively performed by employing an impedance void meter for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in 25.4-mm and 50.8-mm inner diameter round tubes. The newly developed drift-flux model has been validated by 462 data sets obtained in the present study and literatures under various experimental conditions. These data sets cover extensive experimental conditions such as flow system (air-water and steam-water), channel diameter (16-102.3 mm), pressure (0.1-1.5 MPa), and mixture volumetric flux (-0.45 to -24.6 m/s). An excellent agreement has been obtained between the newly developed drift-flux model and the data within an average relative deviation of ±15.4%.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes