We have previously reported that amiodarone interacts with a novel allosteric site on muscarinic receptors. Amiodarone's most striking effect is to enhance the maximal response elicited by muscarinic agonists at the M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Furthermore, the quaternary analog N-ethylamiodarone (NEA) is inhibitory at these receptors and appears to compete with amiodarone at that allosteric site. In the present studies, we show that dronedarone also modulates Gq-mediated responses at M1 and M3, although in a more discriminating manner. For example, dronedarone markedly enhances pilocarpine-stimulated release of arachidonic acid from CHO cells, via the M3 receptor subtype, but does not affect the acetylcholine-stimulated response. Such probe-dependent effects are diagnostic of an allosteric interaction. In comparison to these effects at M3, dronedarone is strongly inhibitory toward both pilocarpine and acetylcholine at the M1 subtype. The effects of dronedarone are consistent with an interaction at the amiodarone site: dronedarone inhibits the enhancement of acetylcholine's response produced by amiodarone at the M3 subtype; also, NEA reverses the enhancement of pilocarpine's response at M3 produced by either dronedarone or amiodarone. In studies with the M1-selective allosteric agonist 4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one (AC-260584), amiodarone enhanced the maximal response observed, whereas dronedarone was inhibitory. On the other hand, benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid, the well-known allosteric ligand that dramatically enhances the potency of acetylcholine at the M1 subtype, had no effect on the response profile of AC-260584. In summary, dronedarone acts at M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in a manner that complements amiodarone and provides an additional tool with which to investigate this novel allosteric site.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes