Drug-induced liver injury presents as various forms of acute and chronic liver disease. There is wide geographic variation in the most commonly implicated agents. Smoking can induce cytochrome P450 enzymes but this does not necessarily translate into clinically relevant drug-induced liver injury. Excessive alcohol consumption is a clear risk factor for intrinsic hepatotoxicity from acetaminophen and may predispose to injury from antituberculosis medications. Understanding of the role of infection, proinflammatory states, disorders of coagulation, and the hepatic clock in predisposing patients to drug-induced liver injury is evolving. More study focusing specifically on environmental risk factors predisposing patients to drug-induced liver injury is needed.
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