Drug-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions: Determine the cause and prevention

Cindy Zhang, Dinh Nguyen Van, Chu Hieu, Timothy Craig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Approximately 45% of all adverse drug reactions are manifested in the skin. Although most are mild, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are potentially lethal. Objective: To review the etiology and clinical manifestations of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) and the demographic characteristics of patients with SCARs. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of electronic medical records for patients who developed drug-induced cutaneous reactions and were treated for initial or ongoing care at a university medical center from June 4, 2008, to August 10, 2018. Search terms included Stevens-Johnson syndrome(SJS), drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms(DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis(AGEP), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and TEN/SJS overlap. Results: Of 596 cases of drug-induced rash, 35 cases (5.9%) of SCARs were encountered (male-to-female ratio, 1.06:1.0; mean age, 48.5 years). Of those 35 cases, 32 were in white patients (91.4%). The most common manifestations were DRESS (19 [54.3%]), SJS (8 [22.8%]), AGEP (6 [17.1%]), TEN (1 [2.9%]), and overlap (1 [2.9%]). Multiple causative drugs were implicated in 14 cases, whereas a single drug was responsible in 21 cases. The most common drugs implicated were antibiotics (88.1%). The most common causative antibiotics were cephalosporins (23.7%). Most of the patients with SCARs were given triamcinolone cream and prednisone alone (18 [51.4%]), methylprednisolone alone (1 [2.9%]), methylprednisolone and prednisone combined (4 [11.4%]), methylprednisolone and prednisolone (1 [2.9%]) or prednisone and prednisolone (1 [2.9%]). Conclusion: The most common SCARs were, in order, DRESS, SJS, AGEP, TEN, and overlap. The most common causative drugs were, in order, cephalosporins, penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-487
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Volume123
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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