Dust extinctions for an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst afterglows

S. Covino, A. Melandri, R. Salvaterra, S. Campana, S. D. Vergani, M. G. Bernardini, P. D'Avanzo, V. D'Elia, D. Fugazza, G. Ghirlanda, G. Ghisellini, A. Gomboc, Z. P. Jin, T. Krühler, D. Malesani, L. Nava, B. Sbarufatti, G. Tagliaferri

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Abstract

In this paper, we compute rest-frame extinctions for the afterglows of a sample of Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) complete in redshift. The selection criteria of the sample are based on observational high-energy parameters of the prompt emission and therefore our sample should not be biased against dusty sight-lines. It is therefore expected that our inferences hold for the general population of GRBs. Our main result is that the optical/near-infrared extinction of GRB afterglows in our sample does not follow a single distribution. 87 per cent of the events are absorbed by less than 2 mag, and 50 per cent suffer from less than 0.3-0.4 mag extinction. The remaining 13 per cent of the afterglows are highly absorbed. The true percentage of GRB afterglows showing high absorption could be even higher since a fair fraction of the events without reliable redshift measurement are probably part of this class. These events may be due to highly dusty molecular clouds/star-forming regions associated with the GRB progenitor or along the afterglow line of sight, and/or due to massive dusty host galaxies. No clear evolution in the dust extinction properties is evident within the redshift range of our sample, although the largest extinctions are at z ~ 1.5-2, close to the expected peak of the star formation rate. Those events classified as dark are characterized, on average, by a higher extinction than typical events in the sample. A correlation between optical/near-infrared extinction and hydrogen-equivalent column density based on X-ray studies is shown, although the observed NH appearsto be well in excess compared to those observed in the Local Group. Dust extinction does not seem to correlate with GRB energetics or luminosity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1231-1244
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume432
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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    Covino, S., Melandri, A., Salvaterra, R., Campana, S., Vergani, S. D., Bernardini, M. G., D'Avanzo, P., D'Elia, V., Fugazza, D., Ghirlanda, G., Ghisellini, G., Gomboc, A., Jin, Z. P., Krühler, T., Malesani, D., Nava, L., Sbarufatti, B., & Tagliaferri, G. (2013). Dust extinctions for an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst afterglows. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 432(2), 1231-1244. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt540