Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) may affect left ventricular (LV) performance by altering both LV diastolic compliance and pericardial pressure (Ppc). We measured the effect of PPV on LV intraluminal pressure, Ppc, LV volume, and LV cross-sectional area in 17 acute anesthetized dogs. To account for changes in lung volume independent of changes in Ppc and differences in contractility, measures were made during both open- and closed-chest conditions, during closed chest with and without chest wall binding, and after propranolol-induced acute ventricular failure (AVF). Apneic end-systolic pressure-volume relations (ESPVR) were generated by inferior vena caval occlusions. With the open chest, PPV had no effects. With the chest closed, PPV inspiration decreased LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) along its diastolic compliance curve and decreased end-systolic volume (ESV) such that the end-systolic pressure-volume domain was shifted to a point left of the LV ESPVR, even when referenced to Ppc. The decrease in EDV was greater in control than in AVF conditions, whereas the shift of the ESV to the left of the ESPVR was greater with AVF than in control conditions. We conclude that the hemodynamic effects of PPV inspiration are due primarily to changes in intrathoracic pressure and that the inspiration-induced decreases of LV EDV reflect direct effects of intrathoracic pressure on LV filling. The decreases in LV ESV exceed the amount explained solely by a reduction in LV ejection pressure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)