In vivo characterization studies were performed to compare the dynamic in vivo performance of the Penn State/3M Health Care electric total artificial heart to existing in vitro data. Fully implanted systems were utilized including the artificial heart, controller, backup batteries, compliance chamber, and transcutaneous energy transmission. Catheters were implanted to measure central venous pressure (CVP), left atrial pressure (LAP), right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and aortic pressure (AoP). Cardiac output (CO) was determined from the implanted controller, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated. Steady state data were collected for each animal along with data regarding the transient responses to changes in preload and afterload. Preload was manipulated through volume changes. Afterload changes were accomplished through vasoactive agents. Increased preload caused little change in cardiac output because the pump output was nearly maximum at baseline. LAP, AoP, and SVR increased with increasing RAP. Decreased preload caused a reduction in CO, LAP, and SVR. Afterload increase resulted in a slight decrease in flow and an increase in system power and SVR. Afterload reduction was accompanied by a decrease in preload and a concomitant reduction in flow. Overall, the system response was similar to the response observed in vitro.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering