Dynamic optimization of dissipative PDE systems using nonlinear order reduction

Antonios Armaou, Panagiotis D. Christofides

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This article presents computationally efficient methods for the solution of dynamic constraint optimization problems arising in the context of spatially distributed processes governed by highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The methods are based on spatial discretization using the method of weighted residuals with spatially global basis functions (i.e., functions that cover the entire domain of definition of the process and satisfy the boundary conditions). More specifically, we perform spatial discretization of the optimization problems using the method of weighted residuals with analytical or empirical (obtained via Karhunen-Loève expansion) eigenfunctions as basis functions, and combination of the method of weighted residuals with approximate inertial manifolds. The proposed methods account for the fact that the dominant dynamics of highly dissipative PDE systems are low dimensional in nature and lead to approximate optimization problems that are of significantly lower order compared to the ones obtained from spatial discretization using finite-difference and finite-element techniques, and thus, they can be solved with significantly smaller computational demand. The resulting dynamic nonlinear programs include equality constraints that constitute a low-order system of coupled ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, which can then be solved with combination of standard temporal discretization and nonlinear programming techniques. We employ backward finite differences (implicit Euler) to perform temporal discretization and solve the nonlinear programs resulting from temporal and spatial discretization using reduced gradient techniques (MINOS). We use two representative examples of dissipative PDEs, a diffusion-reaction process with constant and spatially varying coefficients, and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, a model that describes incipient instabilities in a variety of physical and chemical systems, to demonstrate the implementation and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization algorithms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5083-5114
Number of pages32
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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