Self-powered systems running on scavenged energy will be a key enabler for pervasive computing across the Internet of Things. The variability of input power in energy-harvesting systems limits the effectiveness of static optimizations aimed at maximizing the input-energy-to-computation ratio. We show that the resultant gap between available and exploitable energy is significant, and that energy storage optimizations alone do not significantly close the gap. We characterize these effects on a real, fabricated energy-harvesting system based on a nonvolatile processor. We introduce a unified energy-oriented approach to first optimize the number of backups, by more aggressively using the stored energy available when power failure occurs, and then optimize forward progress via improving the rate of input energy to computation via dynamic voltage and frequency scaling and self-learning techniques. We evaluate combining these schemes and show capture of up to 75.5% of all input energy toward processor computation, an average of 1.54× increase over the best static "Forward Progress" baseline system. Notably, our energy-optimizing policy combinations simultaneously improve both the rate of forward progress and the rate of backup events (by up to 60.7% and 79.2% for RF power, respectively, and up to 231.2% and reduced to zero, respectively, for solar power). This contrasts with static frequency optimization approaches in which these two metrics are antagonistic.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Hardware and Architecture