The governing dynamics and uncertainties of an ensemble simulation of Hurricane Nadine (2012) are assessed through the use of a regional-scale convection-permitting analysis and forecast system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). For this case, the data that are utilized were collected during the 2012 phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) experiment. The majority of the tracks of this ensemble were successful, correctly predicting Nadine's turn toward the southwest ahead of an approaching midlatitude trough, though 10 members forecasted Nadine to be carried eastward by the trough. Ensemble composite and sensitivity analyses reveal the track divergence to be caused by differences in the environmental steering flow that resulted from uncertainties associated with the position and subsequent strength of a midlatitude trough. Despite the general success of the ensemble track forecasts, the intensity forecasts indicated that Nadine would strengthen, which did not happen. A sensitivity experiment performed with the inclusion of sea surface temperature (SST) updates significantly reduced the intensity errors associated with the simulation. This weakening occurred as a result of cooling of the SST field in the vicinity of Nadine, which led to weaker surface sensible and latent heat fluxes at the air-sea interface. A comparison of environmental variables, including relative humidity, temperature, and shear yielded no obvious differences between theWRF-EnKF simulations and the HS3 observations. However, an initial intensity bias in which the WRF-EnKF vortices are stronger than the observed vortex appears to be the most likely cause of the final intensity errors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science