Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal timing of PORT in the management of completely resected (R0) Stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC. Patients and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, patients with known histologies of pathologic Stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC who underwent R0 resection and received PORT concurrent with or prior to two sequential cycles of chemotherapy ("early PORT") or with PORT administered after two cycles of chemotherapy ("late PORT") at multiple hospitals. The primary endpoint was OS; secondary end points included pattern of the first failure, LRRFS, and DMFS. Kaplan-Meier OS, LRRFS, and DMFS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was used to determine prognosticators for OS, LRRFS, and DMFS. Results: Of 112 included patients, 41 (36.6%) and 71 (63.4%) patients received early PORT and late PORT, respectively. The median OS, LRRFS, and DMFS were longer for those who received early PORT than for those who received late PORT at the median follow-up of 29.6 months (all p < 0.05). Uni- and multi-variate analyses showed that number of POCT cycles and the combination schedule of PORT and POCT were independent prognostic factors for OS, LRRFS, and DMFS. Conclusions: Early PORT is associated with improved outcomes in pathologic Stage IIIA-N2 R0 NSCLC patients.
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