Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables

Mariangela Bernardi, Ravi K. Sheth, James Annis, Scott Burles, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Douglas P. Finkbeiner, David W. Hogg, Robert H. Lupton, David J. Schlegel, Mark SubbaRao, Neta A. Bahcall, John P. Blakeslee, J. Brinkmann, Francisco J. Castander, Andrew J. Connolly, István Csabai, Mamoru Doi, Masataka Fukugita, Joshua Frieman, Timothy HeckmanGregory S. Hennessy, Željko Ivezić, R. Knapp, Don Q. Lamb, Timothy McKay, Jeffrey A. Munn, Robert Nichol, Sadanori Okamura, Donald P. Schneider, Aniruddha R. Thakar, Donald G. York

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

223 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A magnitude-limited sample of nearly 9000 early-type galaxies, in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using morphological and spectral criteria. The sample was used to study how early-type galaxy observables, including luminosity L, effective radius Ro, surface brightness Io, color, and velocity dispersion σ, are correlated with one another. Measurement biases are understood with mock catalogs that reproduce all of the observed scaling relations and their dependences on fitting technique. At any given redshift, the intrinsic distribution of luminosities, sizes, and velocity dispersions in our sample are all approximately Gaussian. A maximum, likelihood analysis shows that σ ∝ L0.25±0.012, Ro ∝ L 0.63±0.025, and Ro ∝ I -0.075±0.02 in the r* band. In addition, the mass-to-light ratio within the effective radius scales as Mo/L 0.14±0.02 or Mo/L ∝ Mo 0.22±0.05, and galaxies with larger effective masses have smaller effective densities: Δo Mo -0.52±0.03. These relations are approximately the same in the g*, i*, and z* bands. Relative to the population at the median redshift in the sample, galaxies at lower and higher redshifts have evolved only little, with more evolution in the bluer bands. The luminosity function is consistent with weak passive luminosity evolution and a formation time of about 9 Gyr ago.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1849-1865
Number of pages17
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume125
Issue number4 1768
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2003

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luminosity
galaxies
maximum likelihood analysis
mass to light ratios
Io
radii
catalogs
brightness
color
scaling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Bernardi, M., Sheth, R. K., Annis, J., Burles, S., Eisenstein, D. J., Finkbeiner, D. P., ... York, D. G. (2003). Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables. Astronomical Journal, 125(4 1768), 1849-1865. https://doi.org/10.1086/374256
Bernardi, Mariangela ; Sheth, Ravi K. ; Annis, James ; Burles, Scott ; Eisenstein, Daniel J. ; Finkbeiner, Douglas P. ; Hogg, David W. ; Lupton, Robert H. ; Schlegel, David J. ; SubbaRao, Mark ; Bahcall, Neta A. ; Blakeslee, John P. ; Brinkmann, J. ; Castander, Francisco J. ; Connolly, Andrew J. ; Csabai, István ; Doi, Mamoru ; Fukugita, Masataka ; Frieman, Joshua ; Heckman, Timothy ; Hennessy, Gregory S. ; Ivezić, Željko ; Knapp, R. ; Lamb, Don Q. ; McKay, Timothy ; Munn, Jeffrey A. ; Nichol, Robert ; Okamura, Sadanori ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Thakar, Aniruddha R. ; York, Donald G. / Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables. In: Astronomical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 125, No. 4 1768. pp. 1849-1865.
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title = "Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables",
abstract = "A magnitude-limited sample of nearly 9000 early-type galaxies, in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using morphological and spectral criteria. The sample was used to study how early-type galaxy observables, including luminosity L, effective radius Ro, surface brightness Io, color, and velocity dispersion σ, are correlated with one another. Measurement biases are understood with mock catalogs that reproduce all of the observed scaling relations and their dependences on fitting technique. At any given redshift, the intrinsic distribution of luminosities, sizes, and velocity dispersions in our sample are all approximately Gaussian. A maximum, likelihood analysis shows that σ ∝ L0.25±0.012, Ro ∝ L 0.63±0.025, and Ro ∝ I -0.075±0.02 in the r* band. In addition, the mass-to-light ratio within the effective radius scales as Mo/L 0.14±0.02 or Mo/L ∝ Mo 0.22±0.05, and galaxies with larger effective masses have smaller effective densities: Δo Mo -0.52±0.03. These relations are approximately the same in the g*, i*, and z* bands. Relative to the population at the median redshift in the sample, galaxies at lower and higher redshifts have evolved only little, with more evolution in the bluer bands. The luminosity function is consistent with weak passive luminosity evolution and a formation time of about 9 Gyr ago.",
author = "Mariangela Bernardi and Sheth, {Ravi K.} and James Annis and Scott Burles and Eisenstein, {Daniel J.} and Finkbeiner, {Douglas P.} and Hogg, {David W.} and Lupton, {Robert H.} and Schlegel, {David J.} and Mark SubbaRao and Bahcall, {Neta A.} and Blakeslee, {John P.} and J. Brinkmann and Castander, {Francisco J.} and Connolly, {Andrew J.} and Istv{\'a}n Csabai and Mamoru Doi and Masataka Fukugita and Joshua Frieman and Timothy Heckman and Hennessy, {Gregory S.} and Željko Ivezić and R. Knapp and Lamb, {Don Q.} and Timothy McKay and Munn, {Jeffrey A.} and Robert Nichol and Sadanori Okamura and Schneider, {Donald P.} and Thakar, {Aniruddha R.} and York, {Donald G.}",
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Bernardi, M, Sheth, RK, Annis, J, Burles, S, Eisenstein, DJ, Finkbeiner, DP, Hogg, DW, Lupton, RH, Schlegel, DJ, SubbaRao, M, Bahcall, NA, Blakeslee, JP, Brinkmann, J, Castander, FJ, Connolly, AJ, Csabai, I, Doi, M, Fukugita, M, Frieman, J, Heckman, T, Hennessy, GS, Ivezić, Ž, Knapp, R, Lamb, DQ, McKay, T, Munn, JA, Nichol, R, Okamura, S, Schneider, DP, Thakar, AR & York, DG 2003, 'Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables', Astronomical Journal, vol. 125, no. 4 1768, pp. 1849-1865. https://doi.org/10.1086/374256

Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables. / Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.; Annis, James; Burles, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Hogg, David W.; Lupton, Robert H.; Schlegel, David J.; SubbaRao, Mark; Bahcall, Neta A.; Blakeslee, John P.; Brinkmann, J.; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Frieman, Joshua; Heckman, Timothy; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Ivezić, Željko; Knapp, R.; Lamb, Don Q.; McKay, Timothy; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert; Okamura, Sadanori; Schneider, Donald P.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; York, Donald G.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 125, No. 4 1768, 01.04.2003, p. 1849-1865.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables

AU - Bernardi, Mariangela

AU - Sheth, Ravi K.

AU - Annis, James

AU - Burles, Scott

AU - Eisenstein, Daniel J.

AU - Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

AU - Hogg, David W.

AU - Lupton, Robert H.

AU - Schlegel, David J.

AU - SubbaRao, Mark

AU - Bahcall, Neta A.

AU - Blakeslee, John P.

AU - Brinkmann, J.

AU - Castander, Francisco J.

AU - Connolly, Andrew J.

AU - Csabai, István

AU - Doi, Mamoru

AU - Fukugita, Masataka

AU - Frieman, Joshua

AU - Heckman, Timothy

AU - Hennessy, Gregory S.

AU - Ivezić, Željko

AU - Knapp, R.

AU - Lamb, Don Q.

AU - McKay, Timothy

AU - Munn, Jeffrey A.

AU - Nichol, Robert

AU - Okamura, Sadanori

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Thakar, Aniruddha R.

AU - York, Donald G.

PY - 2003/4/1

Y1 - 2003/4/1

N2 - A magnitude-limited sample of nearly 9000 early-type galaxies, in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using morphological and spectral criteria. The sample was used to study how early-type galaxy observables, including luminosity L, effective radius Ro, surface brightness Io, color, and velocity dispersion σ, are correlated with one another. Measurement biases are understood with mock catalogs that reproduce all of the observed scaling relations and their dependences on fitting technique. At any given redshift, the intrinsic distribution of luminosities, sizes, and velocity dispersions in our sample are all approximately Gaussian. A maximum, likelihood analysis shows that σ ∝ L0.25±0.012, Ro ∝ L 0.63±0.025, and Ro ∝ I -0.075±0.02 in the r* band. In addition, the mass-to-light ratio within the effective radius scales as Mo/L 0.14±0.02 or Mo/L ∝ Mo 0.22±0.05, and galaxies with larger effective masses have smaller effective densities: Δo Mo -0.52±0.03. These relations are approximately the same in the g*, i*, and z* bands. Relative to the population at the median redshift in the sample, galaxies at lower and higher redshifts have evolved only little, with more evolution in the bluer bands. The luminosity function is consistent with weak passive luminosity evolution and a formation time of about 9 Gyr ago.

AB - A magnitude-limited sample of nearly 9000 early-type galaxies, in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using morphological and spectral criteria. The sample was used to study how early-type galaxy observables, including luminosity L, effective radius Ro, surface brightness Io, color, and velocity dispersion σ, are correlated with one another. Measurement biases are understood with mock catalogs that reproduce all of the observed scaling relations and their dependences on fitting technique. At any given redshift, the intrinsic distribution of luminosities, sizes, and velocity dispersions in our sample are all approximately Gaussian. A maximum, likelihood analysis shows that σ ∝ L0.25±0.012, Ro ∝ L 0.63±0.025, and Ro ∝ I -0.075±0.02 in the r* band. In addition, the mass-to-light ratio within the effective radius scales as Mo/L 0.14±0.02 or Mo/L ∝ Mo 0.22±0.05, and galaxies with larger effective masses have smaller effective densities: Δo Mo -0.52±0.03. These relations are approximately the same in the g*, i*, and z* bands. Relative to the population at the median redshift in the sample, galaxies at lower and higher redshifts have evolved only little, with more evolution in the bluer bands. The luminosity function is consistent with weak passive luminosity evolution and a formation time of about 9 Gyr ago.

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Bernardi M, Sheth RK, Annis J, Burles S, Eisenstein DJ, Finkbeiner DP et al. Early-type galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. II. Correlations between observables. Astronomical Journal. 2003 Apr 1;125(4 1768):1849-1865. https://doi.org/10.1086/374256