Eating vegetables first: The use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children

Maureen K. Spill, Leann L. Birch, Liane S. Roe, Barbara J. Rolls

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Serving larger portions of low-energy-dense vegetables at a meal could have beneficial effects on children's food and energy intakes. Objective: We investigated whether increasing the portion size of vegetables served at the start of a meal leads to increased vegetable consumption and decreased meal energy intake in children. Design: In a crossover design, 3- to 5-y-old children in a daycare center were served a test lunch once a week for 4 wk (n = 51). In 3 of the meals, a first course of raw carrots varied in portion size (30, 60, or 90 g), and no first course was served in the control meal. Children consumed the first course ad libitum over 10 min and then were served a main course of pasta, broccoli, applesauce, and milk, which was also consumed ad libitum. Results: Total vegetable consumption at the meal increased as the portion size of carrots increased (P < 0.0001). Doubling the portion size of the first course increased carrot consumption by 47%, or 12 ± 2 g (P < 0.0001). Tripling the portion size of carrots, however, did not lead to a further increase in intake (P = 0.61). Meal energy intake was not significantly affected by the amount of carrots served in the first course. The effect of portion size on intake was not significantly influenced by the children's age or body weight status. Conclusion: Increasing the portion size of a vegetable served as a first course can be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable consumption in preschool children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1237-1243
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume91
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2010

Fingerprint

Portion Size
Preschool Children
Vegetables
Meals
Daucus carota
Eating
Energy Intake
Lunch
Brassica
Cross-Over Studies
Milk
Body Weight

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{28d22cab33204097a42abdcf6d725130,
title = "Eating vegetables first: The use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children",
abstract = "Background: Serving larger portions of low-energy-dense vegetables at a meal could have beneficial effects on children's food and energy intakes. Objective: We investigated whether increasing the portion size of vegetables served at the start of a meal leads to increased vegetable consumption and decreased meal energy intake in children. Design: In a crossover design, 3- to 5-y-old children in a daycare center were served a test lunch once a week for 4 wk (n = 51). In 3 of the meals, a first course of raw carrots varied in portion size (30, 60, or 90 g), and no first course was served in the control meal. Children consumed the first course ad libitum over 10 min and then were served a main course of pasta, broccoli, applesauce, and milk, which was also consumed ad libitum. Results: Total vegetable consumption at the meal increased as the portion size of carrots increased (P < 0.0001). Doubling the portion size of the first course increased carrot consumption by 47{\%}, or 12 ± 2 g (P < 0.0001). Tripling the portion size of carrots, however, did not lead to a further increase in intake (P = 0.61). Meal energy intake was not significantly affected by the amount of carrots served in the first course. The effect of portion size on intake was not significantly influenced by the children's age or body weight status. Conclusion: Increasing the portion size of a vegetable served as a first course can be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable consumption in preschool children.",
author = "Spill, {Maureen K.} and Birch, {Leann L.} and Roe, {Liane S.} and Rolls, {Barbara J.}",
year = "2010",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.2009.29139",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "91",
pages = "1237--1243",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "5",

}

Eating vegetables first : The use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children. / Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 91, No. 5, 01.05.2010, p. 1237-1243.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eating vegetables first

T2 - The use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children

AU - Spill, Maureen K.

AU - Birch, Leann L.

AU - Roe, Liane S.

AU - Rolls, Barbara J.

PY - 2010/5/1

Y1 - 2010/5/1

N2 - Background: Serving larger portions of low-energy-dense vegetables at a meal could have beneficial effects on children's food and energy intakes. Objective: We investigated whether increasing the portion size of vegetables served at the start of a meal leads to increased vegetable consumption and decreased meal energy intake in children. Design: In a crossover design, 3- to 5-y-old children in a daycare center were served a test lunch once a week for 4 wk (n = 51). In 3 of the meals, a first course of raw carrots varied in portion size (30, 60, or 90 g), and no first course was served in the control meal. Children consumed the first course ad libitum over 10 min and then were served a main course of pasta, broccoli, applesauce, and milk, which was also consumed ad libitum. Results: Total vegetable consumption at the meal increased as the portion size of carrots increased (P < 0.0001). Doubling the portion size of the first course increased carrot consumption by 47%, or 12 ± 2 g (P < 0.0001). Tripling the portion size of carrots, however, did not lead to a further increase in intake (P = 0.61). Meal energy intake was not significantly affected by the amount of carrots served in the first course. The effect of portion size on intake was not significantly influenced by the children's age or body weight status. Conclusion: Increasing the portion size of a vegetable served as a first course can be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable consumption in preschool children.

AB - Background: Serving larger portions of low-energy-dense vegetables at a meal could have beneficial effects on children's food and energy intakes. Objective: We investigated whether increasing the portion size of vegetables served at the start of a meal leads to increased vegetable consumption and decreased meal energy intake in children. Design: In a crossover design, 3- to 5-y-old children in a daycare center were served a test lunch once a week for 4 wk (n = 51). In 3 of the meals, a first course of raw carrots varied in portion size (30, 60, or 90 g), and no first course was served in the control meal. Children consumed the first course ad libitum over 10 min and then were served a main course of pasta, broccoli, applesauce, and milk, which was also consumed ad libitum. Results: Total vegetable consumption at the meal increased as the portion size of carrots increased (P < 0.0001). Doubling the portion size of the first course increased carrot consumption by 47%, or 12 ± 2 g (P < 0.0001). Tripling the portion size of carrots, however, did not lead to a further increase in intake (P = 0.61). Meal energy intake was not significantly affected by the amount of carrots served in the first course. The effect of portion size on intake was not significantly influenced by the children's age or body weight status. Conclusion: Increasing the portion size of a vegetable served as a first course can be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable consumption in preschool children.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77951963086&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77951963086&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29139

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29139

M3 - Article

C2 - 20219955

AN - SCOPUS:77951963086

VL - 91

SP - 1237

EP - 1243

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 5

ER -