Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core

D. Dahl-Jensen, M. R. Albert, A. Aldahan, N. Azuma, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. Baumgartner, A. M. Berggren, M. Bigler, T. Binder, T. Blunier, J. C. Bourgeois, E. J. Brook, S. L. Buchardt, C. Buizert, E. Capron, J. Chappellaz, J. Chung, H. B. Clausen, I. Cvijanovic, S. M. DaviesP. Ditlevsen, O. Eicher, H. Fischer, D. A. Fisher, L. G. Fleet, G. Gfeller, V. Gkinis, S. Gogineni, K. Goto-Azuma, A. Grinsted, H. Gudlaugsdottir, M. Guillevic, S. B. Hansen, M. Hansson, M. Hirabayashi, S. Hong, S. D. Hur, P. Huybrechts, C. S. Hvidberg, Y. Iizuka, T. Jenk, S. J. Johnsen, T. R. Jones, J. Jouzel, N. B. Karlsson, K. Kawamura, K. Keegan, E. Kettner, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, M. Koutnik, T. Kuramoto, P. Köhler, T. Laepple, A. Landais, P. L. Langen, L. B. Larsen, D. Leuenberger, M. Leuenberger, C. Leuschen, J. Li, V. Lipenkov, P. Martinerie, O. J. Maselli, V. Masson-Delmotte, J. R. McConnell, H. Miller, O. Mini, A. Miyamoto, M. Montagnat-Rentier, R. Mulvaney, R. Muscheler, A. J. Orsi, J. Paden, C. Panton, F. Pattyn, J. R. Petit, K. Pol, T. Popp, G. Possnert, F. Prié, M. Prokopiou, A. Quiquet, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, J. Ren, C. Reutenauer, C. Ritz, T. Röckmann, J. L. Rosen, M. Rubino, O. Rybak, D. Samyn, C. J. Sapart, A. Schilt, A. M.Z. Schmidt, J. Schwander, S. Schüpbach, I. Seierstad, J. P. Severinghaus, S. Sheldon, S. B. Simonsen, J. Sjolte, A. M. Solgaard, T. Sowers, P. Sperlich, H. C. Steen-Larsen, K. Steffen, J. P. Steffensen, D. Steinhage, T. F. Stocker, C. Stowasser, A. S. Sturevik, W. T. Sturges, A. Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. Svensson, J. L. Tison, J. Uetake, P. Vallelonga, R. S.W. Van De Wal, G. Van Der Wel, B. H. Vaughn, B. Vinther, E. Waddington, A. Wegner, I. Weikusat, J. W.C. White, F. Wilhelms, M. Winstrup, E. Witrant, E. W. Wolff, C. Xiao, J. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

334 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 ± 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 ± 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 ± 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-494
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume493
Issue number7433
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 24 2013

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Greenland
Ice
Ice Cover
Climate
Isotopes
Hot Temperature
Temperature
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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Dahl-Jensen, D., Albert, M. R., Aldahan, A., Azuma, N., Balslev-Clausen, D., Baumgartner, M., ... Zheng, J. (2013). Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core. Nature, 493(7433), 489-494. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11789
Dahl-Jensen, D. ; Albert, M. R. ; Aldahan, A. ; Azuma, N. ; Balslev-Clausen, D. ; Baumgartner, M. ; Berggren, A. M. ; Bigler, M. ; Binder, T. ; Blunier, T. ; Bourgeois, J. C. ; Brook, E. J. ; Buchardt, S. L. ; Buizert, C. ; Capron, E. ; Chappellaz, J. ; Chung, J. ; Clausen, H. B. ; Cvijanovic, I. ; Davies, S. M. ; Ditlevsen, P. ; Eicher, O. ; Fischer, H. ; Fisher, D. A. ; Fleet, L. G. ; Gfeller, G. ; Gkinis, V. ; Gogineni, S. ; Goto-Azuma, K. ; Grinsted, A. ; Gudlaugsdottir, H. ; Guillevic, M. ; Hansen, S. B. ; Hansson, M. ; Hirabayashi, M. ; Hong, S. ; Hur, S. D. ; Huybrechts, P. ; Hvidberg, C. S. ; Iizuka, Y. ; Jenk, T. ; Johnsen, S. J. ; Jones, T. R. ; Jouzel, J. ; Karlsson, N. B. ; Kawamura, K. ; Keegan, K. ; Kettner, E. ; Kipfstuhl, S. ; Kjær, H. A. ; Koutnik, M. ; Kuramoto, T. ; Köhler, P. ; Laepple, T. ; Landais, A. ; Langen, P. L. ; Larsen, L. B. ; Leuenberger, D. ; Leuenberger, M. ; Leuschen, C. ; Li, J. ; Lipenkov, V. ; Martinerie, P. ; Maselli, O. J. ; Masson-Delmotte, V. ; McConnell, J. R. ; Miller, H. ; Mini, O. ; Miyamoto, A. ; Montagnat-Rentier, M. ; Mulvaney, R. ; Muscheler, R. ; Orsi, A. J. ; Paden, J. ; Panton, C. ; Pattyn, F. ; Petit, J. R. ; Pol, K. ; Popp, T. ; Possnert, G. ; Prié, F. ; Prokopiou, M. ; Quiquet, A. ; Rasmussen, S. O. ; Raynaud, D. ; Ren, J. ; Reutenauer, C. ; Ritz, C. ; Röckmann, T. ; Rosen, J. L. ; Rubino, M. ; Rybak, O. ; Samyn, D. ; Sapart, C. J. ; Schilt, A. ; Schmidt, A. M.Z. ; Schwander, J. ; Schüpbach, S. ; Seierstad, I. ; Severinghaus, J. P. ; Sheldon, S. ; Simonsen, S. B. ; Sjolte, J. ; Solgaard, A. M. ; Sowers, T. ; Sperlich, P. ; Steen-Larsen, H. C. ; Steffen, K. ; Steffensen, J. P. ; Steinhage, D. ; Stocker, T. F. ; Stowasser, C. ; Sturevik, A. S. ; Sturges, W. T. ; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. ; Svensson, A. ; Tison, J. L. ; Uetake, J. ; Vallelonga, P. ; Van De Wal, R. S.W. ; Van Der Wel, G. ; Vaughn, B. H. ; Vinther, B. ; Waddington, E. ; Wegner, A. ; Weikusat, I. ; White, J. W.C. ; Wilhelms, F. ; Winstrup, M. ; Witrant, E. ; Wolff, E. W. ; Xiao, C. ; Zheng, J. / Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core. In: Nature. 2013 ; Vol. 493, No. 7433. pp. 489-494.
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title = "Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core",
abstract = "Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 ± 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 ± 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 ± 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.",
author = "D. Dahl-Jensen and Albert, {M. R.} and A. Aldahan and N. Azuma and D. Balslev-Clausen and M. Baumgartner and Berggren, {A. M.} and M. Bigler and T. Binder and T. Blunier and Bourgeois, {J. C.} and Brook, {E. J.} and Buchardt, {S. L.} and C. Buizert and E. Capron and J. Chappellaz and J. Chung and Clausen, {H. B.} and I. Cvijanovic and Davies, {S. M.} and P. Ditlevsen and O. Eicher and H. Fischer and Fisher, {D. A.} and Fleet, {L. G.} and G. Gfeller and V. Gkinis and S. Gogineni and K. Goto-Azuma and A. Grinsted and H. Gudlaugsdottir and M. Guillevic and Hansen, {S. B.} and M. Hansson and M. Hirabayashi and S. Hong and Hur, {S. D.} and P. Huybrechts and Hvidberg, {C. S.} and Y. Iizuka and T. Jenk and Johnsen, {S. J.} and Jones, {T. R.} and J. Jouzel and Karlsson, {N. B.} and K. Kawamura and K. Keegan and E. Kettner and S. Kipfstuhl and Kj{\ae}r, {H. A.} and M. Koutnik and T. Kuramoto and P. K{\"o}hler and T. Laepple and A. Landais and Langen, {P. L.} and Larsen, {L. B.} and D. Leuenberger and M. Leuenberger and C. Leuschen and J. Li and V. Lipenkov and P. Martinerie and Maselli, {O. J.} and V. Masson-Delmotte and McConnell, {J. R.} and H. Miller and O. Mini and A. Miyamoto and M. Montagnat-Rentier and R. Mulvaney and R. Muscheler and Orsi, {A. J.} and J. Paden and C. Panton and F. Pattyn and Petit, {J. R.} and K. Pol and T. Popp and G. Possnert and F. Pri{\'e} and M. Prokopiou and A. Quiquet and Rasmussen, {S. O.} and D. Raynaud and J. Ren and C. Reutenauer and C. Ritz and T. R{\"o}ckmann and Rosen, {J. L.} and M. Rubino and O. Rybak and D. Samyn and Sapart, {C. J.} and A. Schilt and Schmidt, {A. M.Z.} and J. Schwander and S. Sch{\"u}pbach and I. Seierstad and Severinghaus, {J. P.} and S. Sheldon and Simonsen, {S. B.} and J. Sjolte and Solgaard, {A. M.} and T. Sowers and P. Sperlich and Steen-Larsen, {H. C.} and K. Steffen and Steffensen, {J. P.} and D. Steinhage and Stocker, {T. F.} and C. Stowasser and Sturevik, {A. S.} and Sturges, {W. T.} and A. Sveinbj{\"o}rnsdottir and A. Svensson and Tison, {J. L.} and J. Uetake and P. Vallelonga and {Van De Wal}, {R. S.W.} and {Van Der Wel}, G. and Vaughn, {B. H.} and B. Vinther and E. Waddington and A. Wegner and I. Weikusat and White, {J. W.C.} and F. Wilhelms and M. Winstrup and E. Witrant and Wolff, {E. W.} and C. Xiao and J. Zheng",
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Dahl-Jensen, D, Albert, MR, Aldahan, A, Azuma, N, Balslev-Clausen, D, Baumgartner, M, Berggren, AM, Bigler, M, Binder, T, Blunier, T, Bourgeois, JC, Brook, EJ, Buchardt, SL, Buizert, C, Capron, E, Chappellaz, J, Chung, J, Clausen, HB, Cvijanovic, I, Davies, SM, Ditlevsen, P, Eicher, O, Fischer, H, Fisher, DA, Fleet, LG, Gfeller, G, Gkinis, V, Gogineni, S, Goto-Azuma, K, Grinsted, A, Gudlaugsdottir, H, Guillevic, M, Hansen, SB, Hansson, M, Hirabayashi, M, Hong, S, Hur, SD, Huybrechts, P, Hvidberg, CS, Iizuka, Y, Jenk, T, Johnsen, SJ, Jones, TR, Jouzel, J, Karlsson, NB, Kawamura, K, Keegan, K, Kettner, E, Kipfstuhl, S, Kjær, HA, Koutnik, M, Kuramoto, T, Köhler, P, Laepple, T, Landais, A, Langen, PL, Larsen, LB, Leuenberger, D, Leuenberger, M, Leuschen, C, Li, J, Lipenkov, V, Martinerie, P, Maselli, OJ, Masson-Delmotte, V, McConnell, JR, Miller, H, Mini, O, Miyamoto, A, Montagnat-Rentier, M, Mulvaney, R, Muscheler, R, Orsi, AJ, Paden, J, Panton, C, Pattyn, F, Petit, JR, Pol, K, Popp, T, Possnert, G, Prié, F, Prokopiou, M, Quiquet, A, Rasmussen, SO, Raynaud, D, Ren, J, Reutenauer, C, Ritz, C, Röckmann, T, Rosen, JL, Rubino, M, Rybak, O, Samyn, D, Sapart, CJ, Schilt, A, Schmidt, AMZ, Schwander, J, Schüpbach, S, Seierstad, I, Severinghaus, JP, Sheldon, S, Simonsen, SB, Sjolte, J, Solgaard, AM, Sowers, T, Sperlich, P, Steen-Larsen, HC, Steffen, K, Steffensen, JP, Steinhage, D, Stocker, TF, Stowasser, C, Sturevik, AS, Sturges, WT, Sveinbjörnsdottir, A, Svensson, A, Tison, JL, Uetake, J, Vallelonga, P, Van De Wal, RSW, Van Der Wel, G, Vaughn, BH, Vinther, B, Waddington, E, Wegner, A, Weikusat, I, White, JWC, Wilhelms, F, Winstrup, M, Witrant, E, Wolff, EW, Xiao, C & Zheng, J 2013, 'Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core', Nature, vol. 493, no. 7433, pp. 489-494. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11789

Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core. / Dahl-Jensen, D.; Albert, M. R.; Aldahan, A.; Azuma, N.; Balslev-Clausen, D.; Baumgartner, M.; Berggren, A. M.; Bigler, M.; Binder, T.; Blunier, T.; Bourgeois, J. C.; Brook, E. J.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Chung, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cvijanovic, I.; Davies, S. M.; Ditlevsen, P.; Eicher, O.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Fleet, L. G.; Gfeller, G.; Gkinis, V.; Gogineni, S.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Grinsted, A.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Guillevic, M.; Hansen, S. B.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Hong, S.; Hur, S. D.; Huybrechts, P.; Hvidberg, C. S.; Iizuka, Y.; Jenk, T.; Johnsen, S. J.; Jones, T. R.; Jouzel, J.; Karlsson, N. B.; Kawamura, K.; Keegan, K.; Kettner, E.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Koutnik, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Köhler, P.; Laepple, T.; Landais, A.; Langen, P. L.; Larsen, L. B.; Leuenberger, D.; Leuenberger, M.; Leuschen, C.; Li, J.; Lipenkov, V.; Martinerie, P.; Maselli, O. J.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; McConnell, J. R.; Miller, H.; Mini, O.; Miyamoto, A.; Montagnat-Rentier, M.; Mulvaney, R.; Muscheler, R.; Orsi, A. J.; Paden, J.; Panton, C.; Pattyn, F.; Petit, J. R.; Pol, K.; Popp, T.; Possnert, G.; Prié, F.; Prokopiou, M.; Quiquet, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Raynaud, D.; Ren, J.; Reutenauer, C.; Ritz, C.; Röckmann, T.; Rosen, J. L.; Rubino, M.; Rybak, O.; Samyn, D.; Sapart, C. J.; Schilt, A.; Schmidt, A. M.Z.; Schwander, J.; Schüpbach, S.; Seierstad, I.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Sheldon, S.; Simonsen, S. B.; Sjolte, J.; Solgaard, A. M.; Sowers, T.; Sperlich, P.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Steffen, K.; Steffensen, J. P.; Steinhage, D.; Stocker, T. F.; Stowasser, C.; Sturevik, A. S.; Sturges, W. T.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A.; Svensson, A.; Tison, J. L.; Uetake, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Van De Wal, R. S.W.; Van Der Wel, G.; Vaughn, B. H.; Vinther, B.; Waddington, E.; Wegner, A.; Weikusat, I.; White, J. W.C.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.; Witrant, E.; Wolff, E. W.; Xiao, C.; Zheng, J.

In: Nature, Vol. 493, No. 7433, 24.01.2013, p. 489-494.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core

AU - Dahl-Jensen, D.

AU - Albert, M. R.

AU - Aldahan, A.

AU - Azuma, N.

AU - Balslev-Clausen, D.

AU - Baumgartner, M.

AU - Berggren, A. M.

AU - Bigler, M.

AU - Binder, T.

AU - Blunier, T.

AU - Bourgeois, J. C.

AU - Brook, E. J.

AU - Buchardt, S. L.

AU - Buizert, C.

AU - Capron, E.

AU - Chappellaz, J.

AU - Chung, J.

AU - Clausen, H. B.

AU - Cvijanovic, I.

AU - Davies, S. M.

AU - Ditlevsen, P.

AU - Eicher, O.

AU - Fischer, H.

AU - Fisher, D. A.

AU - Fleet, L. G.

AU - Gfeller, G.

AU - Gkinis, V.

AU - Gogineni, S.

AU - Goto-Azuma, K.

AU - Grinsted, A.

AU - Gudlaugsdottir, H.

AU - Guillevic, M.

AU - Hansen, S. B.

AU - Hansson, M.

AU - Hirabayashi, M.

AU - Hong, S.

AU - Hur, S. D.

AU - Huybrechts, P.

AU - Hvidberg, C. S.

AU - Iizuka, Y.

AU - Jenk, T.

AU - Johnsen, S. J.

AU - Jones, T. R.

AU - Jouzel, J.

AU - Karlsson, N. B.

AU - Kawamura, K.

AU - Keegan, K.

AU - Kettner, E.

AU - Kipfstuhl, S.

AU - Kjær, H. A.

AU - Koutnik, M.

AU - Kuramoto, T.

AU - Köhler, P.

AU - Laepple, T.

AU - Landais, A.

AU - Langen, P. L.

AU - Larsen, L. B.

AU - Leuenberger, D.

AU - Leuenberger, M.

AU - Leuschen, C.

AU - Li, J.

AU - Lipenkov, V.

AU - Martinerie, P.

AU - Maselli, O. J.

AU - Masson-Delmotte, V.

AU - McConnell, J. R.

AU - Miller, H.

AU - Mini, O.

AU - Miyamoto, A.

AU - Montagnat-Rentier, M.

AU - Mulvaney, R.

AU - Muscheler, R.

AU - Orsi, A. J.

AU - Paden, J.

AU - Panton, C.

AU - Pattyn, F.

AU - Petit, J. R.

AU - Pol, K.

AU - Popp, T.

AU - Possnert, G.

AU - Prié, F.

AU - Prokopiou, M.

AU - Quiquet, A.

AU - Rasmussen, S. O.

AU - Raynaud, D.

AU - Ren, J.

AU - Reutenauer, C.

AU - Ritz, C.

AU - Röckmann, T.

AU - Rosen, J. L.

AU - Rubino, M.

AU - Rybak, O.

AU - Samyn, D.

AU - Sapart, C. J.

AU - Schilt, A.

AU - Schmidt, A. M.Z.

AU - Schwander, J.

AU - Schüpbach, S.

AU - Seierstad, I.

AU - Severinghaus, J. P.

AU - Sheldon, S.

AU - Simonsen, S. B.

AU - Sjolte, J.

AU - Solgaard, A. M.

AU - Sowers, T.

AU - Sperlich, P.

AU - Steen-Larsen, H. C.

AU - Steffen, K.

AU - Steffensen, J. P.

AU - Steinhage, D.

AU - Stocker, T. F.

AU - Stowasser, C.

AU - Sturevik, A. S.

AU - Sturges, W. T.

AU - Sveinbjörnsdottir, A.

AU - Svensson, A.

AU - Tison, J. L.

AU - Uetake, J.

AU - Vallelonga, P.

AU - Van De Wal, R. S.W.

AU - Van Der Wel, G.

AU - Vaughn, B. H.

AU - Vinther, B.

AU - Waddington, E.

AU - Wegner, A.

AU - Weikusat, I.

AU - White, J. W.C.

AU - Wilhelms, F.

AU - Winstrup, M.

AU - Witrant, E.

AU - Wolff, E. W.

AU - Xiao, C.

AU - Zheng, J.

PY - 2013/1/24

Y1 - 2013/1/24

N2 - Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 ± 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 ± 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 ± 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.

AB - Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 ± 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 ± 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 ± 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84872976669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84872976669&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature11789

DO - 10.1038/nature11789

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VL - 493

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EP - 494

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

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Dahl-Jensen D, Albert MR, Aldahan A, Azuma N, Balslev-Clausen D, Baumgartner M et al. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core. Nature. 2013 Jan 24;493(7433):489-494. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11789