Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows

Alexander Nikolov Hristov, J. K. Ropp, K. L. Grandeen, S. Abedi, R. P. Etter, A. Melgar, A. E. Foley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dextrose, starch, NDF, and a carbohydrate (CHO) mix on utilization of ruminal ammonia in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (BW = 788 ± 31 kg; 217 ± 35 d in milk) were allocated to four treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design trial. Cows were fed an all alfalfa diet at 12-h intervals (DMI = 22.2 ± 0.25 kg/d). Treatments were control, white oat fiber (NDF); corn dextrose (GLU); cornstarch (STA); and a CHO mix (25% of each): apple pectin, GLU, STA, and NDF (MIX). Carbohydrates were introduced intraruminally during feeding at 20% of dietary DMI. Ruminal ammonia was labeled with 15N. Ruminal pH was the highest for NDF followed by STA and MIX and GLU (P < 0.001). Ruminal ammonia concentration and pool size were decreased by GLU and STA compared with NDF (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Acetate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and total VFA concentration in the rumen were decreased (P = 0.009 to 0.001), and butyrate was increased (P < 0.001) by GLU compared with the other CHO. Microbial N flow to the duodenum was decreased (P < 0.05) by NDF compared with the other CHO, and the flow of microbial N formed from ammonia was greater for STA compared with GLU and NDF (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Urinary N loss was decreased (P = 0.05) by GLU and STA, but overall (feces plus urine) N losses were not affected (P = 0.73) by treatment. Milk urea concentration was lowered by GLU and STA compared with NDF and MIX (P = 0.002). The proportion of bacterial N synthesized from ammonia in the rumen was greater with STA than with NDF and MIX and was least for GLU (P = 0.02). Irreversible ammonia loss and flux were lower (P = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively) for GLU than for STA and NDF. As a percentage of the dose given, cumulative secretion of 15N ammonia in milk protein was greater for STA than for GLU or NDF (P = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). This experiment demonstrated that provision of readily fermentable energy can decrease ammonia concentrations in the rumen through decreased ammonia production (GLU), or through enhanced uptake of ammonia for microbial protein synthesis (STA). Rapidly fermentable energy in the rumen decreased ammonia production and flux, but the overall efficiency of ammonia utilization for milk protein synthesis was only increased by enhancing ruminal microbial ammonia uptake.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)408-421
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume83
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2005

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Ammonia
ammonia
dairy cows
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
Rumen
rumen
Milk Proteins
dairy protein
Starch
Milk
Isobutyrates
uptake mechanisms
Glucose
cows
milk
glucose
Medicago sativa
Butyrates
microbial proteins

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

Hristov, A. N., Ropp, J. K., Grandeen, K. L., Abedi, S., Etter, R. P., Melgar, A., & Foley, A. E. (2005). Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science, 83(2), 408-421.
Hristov, Alexander Nikolov ; Ropp, J. K. ; Grandeen, K. L. ; Abedi, S. ; Etter, R. P. ; Melgar, A. ; Foley, A. E. / Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows. In: Journal of Animal Science. 2005 ; Vol. 83, No. 2. pp. 408-421.
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Hristov, AN, Ropp, JK, Grandeen, KL, Abedi, S, Etter, RP, Melgar, A & Foley, AE 2005, 'Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows', Journal of Animal Science, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 408-421.

Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows. / Hristov, Alexander Nikolov; Ropp, J. K.; Grandeen, K. L.; Abedi, S.; Etter, R. P.; Melgar, A.; Foley, A. E.

In: Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 83, No. 2, 02.2005, p. 408-421.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Hristov, Alexander Nikolov

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AU - Grandeen, K. L.

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AB - This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dextrose, starch, NDF, and a carbohydrate (CHO) mix on utilization of ruminal ammonia in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (BW = 788 ± 31 kg; 217 ± 35 d in milk) were allocated to four treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design trial. Cows were fed an all alfalfa diet at 12-h intervals (DMI = 22.2 ± 0.25 kg/d). Treatments were control, white oat fiber (NDF); corn dextrose (GLU); cornstarch (STA); and a CHO mix (25% of each): apple pectin, GLU, STA, and NDF (MIX). Carbohydrates were introduced intraruminally during feeding at 20% of dietary DMI. Ruminal ammonia was labeled with 15N. Ruminal pH was the highest for NDF followed by STA and MIX and GLU (P < 0.001). Ruminal ammonia concentration and pool size were decreased by GLU and STA compared with NDF (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Acetate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and total VFA concentration in the rumen were decreased (P = 0.009 to 0.001), and butyrate was increased (P < 0.001) by GLU compared with the other CHO. Microbial N flow to the duodenum was decreased (P < 0.05) by NDF compared with the other CHO, and the flow of microbial N formed from ammonia was greater for STA compared with GLU and NDF (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Urinary N loss was decreased (P = 0.05) by GLU and STA, but overall (feces plus urine) N losses were not affected (P = 0.73) by treatment. Milk urea concentration was lowered by GLU and STA compared with NDF and MIX (P = 0.002). The proportion of bacterial N synthesized from ammonia in the rumen was greater with STA than with NDF and MIX and was least for GLU (P = 0.02). Irreversible ammonia loss and flux were lower (P = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively) for GLU than for STA and NDF. As a percentage of the dose given, cumulative secretion of 15N ammonia in milk protein was greater for STA than for GLU or NDF (P = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). This experiment demonstrated that provision of readily fermentable energy can decrease ammonia concentrations in the rumen through decreased ammonia production (GLU), or through enhanced uptake of ammonia for microbial protein synthesis (STA). Rapidly fermentable energy in the rumen decreased ammonia production and flux, but the overall efficiency of ammonia utilization for milk protein synthesis was only increased by enhancing ruminal microbial ammonia uptake.

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Hristov AN, Ropp JK, Grandeen KL, Abedi S, Etter RP, Melgar A et al. Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science. 2005 Feb;83(2):408-421.