During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8.4 kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 4 d followed by a 10-d washout. Treatments were control (CON), ruminal infusion of acetate (AC; continuous infusion of 7 mol/d adjusted to pH 6.1 with sodium hydroxide), or abomasal infusion of CLA (10 g/d of both trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA). Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield and percentage were not affected by treatments. Compared with CON, milk fat yield decreased 23% and fat percent decreased 28% in CLA, and milk fat yield increased 20% in AC. Concentration and yield of milk de novo synthesized fatty acids (<C16) were reduced and concentration of preformed fatty acids (>C16) was increased by CLA, compared with CON. Yield of de novo synthesized fatty acids and palmitic acid was increased by AC, compared with CON. Lipogenesis capacity of adipose tissue explants was decreased 72% by CLA, but was not affected by AC. Acetate oxidation by adipose explants was not affected by treatments. Treatments had no effect on expression of key lipogenic factors, lipogenic enzymes, and leptin; however, expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 was reduced in CLA compared with CON. Additionally, hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin 1 were decreased by CLA and acetate. Plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were not affected by treatments; however, CLA increased nonesterified fatty acids 17.7%, β-hydroxybutyrate 16.1%, and insulin 27.8% compared with CON, and AC increased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate 18%. In conclusion, during CLA-induced MFD in low-producing cow adipose tissue was sensitive to the anti-lipogenic effects of CLA, while spared acetate did not stimulate adipose lipogenesis. However, acetate may play an important role in stimulating lipogenesis and improving energy status in the mammary gland under normal conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology