A feedlot trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin A concentration and roasted soybean (SB) inclusion on carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, and muscle fatty acid composition. Angus-crossbred steers (n = 168; 295 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (7 steers each). Four treatments, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, were investigated: no supplemental vitamin A, no roasted soybeans (NANS); no vitamin A, roasted SB (20% of the diet on a DM basis; NASB); with supplemental (2,700 IU/kg) vitamin A, no roasted SB (WANS); and with supplemental vitamin A, roasted SB (WASB). Diets included high moisture corn, 5% corn silage, 10 to 20% supplement, and 20% roasted SB in the SB treatments on a DM basis. The calculated vitamin A concentration in the basal diet was <1,300 IU/kg of DM. Blood samples (2 steers/pen) were collected for serum vitamin A determination. Steers were slaughtered after 168 d on feed. Carcass characteristics and LM composition were determined. Fatty acid composition of LM was analyzed, and adipose cellularity in the i.m. and s.c. depots was determined. No vitamin A A × SB interactions were detected (P > 0.10) for cattle performance, carcass composition, or muscle fatty acid composition. Low vitamin A diets (NA) did not affect (P > 0.05) ADG, DMI, or G:F. Quality grade tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in NA steers. Marbling scores and the percentage of carcasses grading ≥ Choice" were 10% greater for NA steers, although these trends were not significant (P = 0.11 and 0.13, respectively). Backfat thickness and yield grade were not affected (P > 0.26) by vitamin A supplementation. Composition of the LM was not affected (P > 0.15) by vitamin A or SB supplementation. Serum retinol at slaughter was 44% lower (P < 0.01) for steers fed NA than for steers supplemented with vitamin A (23.0 vs. 41.1 μg/dL). A vitamin A x SB interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for adipose cellularity in the i.m. depot; when no SB was fed, vitamin A supplementation decreased cell density and increased cell size. However, when SB was fed, vitamin A supplementation did not affect adipose cellularity. Adipose cellularity at the s.c. depot was not affected (P > 0.18) by vitamin A or SB treatments. Fatty acid profile of the LM was not affected by vitamin A (P > 0.05), but SB increased (P < 0.05) PUFA (7.88 vs. 4.30 g/100 g). It was concluded that feeding NA tended to increase marbling without affecting backfat and yield grade. It appeared that NA induced hyperplasia in the i.m. but not in the s.c. fat depot.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology