We studied the effect of different routes of inoculation on the infectivity and duration of viral shedding in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) infected with wild bird-origin low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). One-month-old mallards were inoculated with 106 median embryo infectious doses of either A/mallard/MN/199106/99 (H3N8) or A/mallard/MN/355779/00 (H5N2) via 1 of 5 different routes: intranasal (IN), intratracheal (IT), intraocular (IO), intracloacal (IC), or intra-ingluvial (II). Birds in all routes of inoculation groups became infected with LPAIV as detected by virus isolation, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and serology. Mallards in different route of inoculation groups had similar viral shedding through oropharynx and cloaca from 1 day postinoculation (dpi). The peak of oropharyngeal (OP) viral shedding was reached between 2 and 3 dpi in all routes of inoculation groups infected with either virus. The peak of cloacal (CL) viral excretion was reached between 2 and 3 dpi in all routes of inoculation groups infected with H3N8 LPAIV and in the IO-, IC-, and II-inoculated groups infected with H5N2 LPAIV, with a delayed and shorter peak for the IN-and IT-inoculated groups. The birds inoculated via the II route had more productive OP and CL viral shedding after infection with either LPAIV, as evidenced by higher number of swabs testing positive over the study period. In conclusion, mallards can be infected with LPAIV by various routes of inoculation, and this corroborates their high susceptibility to infection by these viruses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Animals
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)