Effect of directed energy deposition processing parameters on laser deposited Inconel® 718: Microstructure, fusion zone morphology, and hardness

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Abstract

Single-bead, laser-deposited Inconel® 718 tracks atop substrates of the same composition were studied to ascertain the influence of laser power, processing speed, working distance, and substrate preheat on the fusion zone geometry, microstructure, and hardness. Modifying working distance encompassed both a change in powder flow distribution and beam diameter. Laser power and processing speed linearly affected fusion zone width and area, though laser power was found to have the most significant effect of all processing parameters. Preheating the substrates increased the width of the fusion zone by an average of 16% and led to a more uniform hardness throughout. The fusion zone cross-section was found to morph from semicircular to double-parabolic (wavy) with increasing laser power. This was attributed to surface tension induced Marangoni flow and the influence of surface-activated species on surface tension. The applicability of coupled parameters, including linear heat input and normalized enthalpy were investigated. Given the limited data available on the influence of processing parameters, particularly working distance and substrate temperature, on fusion zone geometry and hardness, results reported here may aid experimentalists and modelers working on cladding and additive manufacturing processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number022005
JournalJournal of Laser Applications
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Inconel (trademark)
Fusion reactions
hardness
fusion
Hardness
microstructure
Microstructure
Lasers
Processing
lasers
Substrates
Surface tension
interfacial tension
3D printers
energy
Geometry
Preheating
geometry
beads
Powders

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

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title = "Effect of directed energy deposition processing parameters on laser deposited Inconel{\circledR} 718: Microstructure, fusion zone morphology, and hardness",
abstract = "Single-bead, laser-deposited Inconel{\circledR} 718 tracks atop substrates of the same composition were studied to ascertain the influence of laser power, processing speed, working distance, and substrate preheat on the fusion zone geometry, microstructure, and hardness. Modifying working distance encompassed both a change in powder flow distribution and beam diameter. Laser power and processing speed linearly affected fusion zone width and area, though laser power was found to have the most significant effect of all processing parameters. Preheating the substrates increased the width of the fusion zone by an average of 16{\%} and led to a more uniform hardness throughout. The fusion zone cross-section was found to morph from semicircular to double-parabolic (wavy) with increasing laser power. This was attributed to surface tension induced Marangoni flow and the influence of surface-activated species on surface tension. The applicability of coupled parameters, including linear heat input and normalized enthalpy were investigated. Given the limited data available on the influence of processing parameters, particularly working distance and substrate temperature, on fusion zone geometry and hardness, results reported here may aid experimentalists and modelers working on cladding and additive manufacturing processes.",
author = "Kistler, {Nathan A.} and Nassar, {Abdalla Ramadan} and Reutzel, {Edward William} and David Corbin and Beese, {Allison Michelle}",
year = "2017",
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AU - Kistler, Nathan A.

AU - Nassar, Abdalla Ramadan

AU - Reutzel, Edward William

AU - Corbin, David

AU - Beese, Allison Michelle

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Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - Single-bead, laser-deposited Inconel® 718 tracks atop substrates of the same composition were studied to ascertain the influence of laser power, processing speed, working distance, and substrate preheat on the fusion zone geometry, microstructure, and hardness. Modifying working distance encompassed both a change in powder flow distribution and beam diameter. Laser power and processing speed linearly affected fusion zone width and area, though laser power was found to have the most significant effect of all processing parameters. Preheating the substrates increased the width of the fusion zone by an average of 16% and led to a more uniform hardness throughout. The fusion zone cross-section was found to morph from semicircular to double-parabolic (wavy) with increasing laser power. This was attributed to surface tension induced Marangoni flow and the influence of surface-activated species on surface tension. The applicability of coupled parameters, including linear heat input and normalized enthalpy were investigated. Given the limited data available on the influence of processing parameters, particularly working distance and substrate temperature, on fusion zone geometry and hardness, results reported here may aid experimentalists and modelers working on cladding and additive manufacturing processes.

AB - Single-bead, laser-deposited Inconel® 718 tracks atop substrates of the same composition were studied to ascertain the influence of laser power, processing speed, working distance, and substrate preheat on the fusion zone geometry, microstructure, and hardness. Modifying working distance encompassed both a change in powder flow distribution and beam diameter. Laser power and processing speed linearly affected fusion zone width and area, though laser power was found to have the most significant effect of all processing parameters. Preheating the substrates increased the width of the fusion zone by an average of 16% and led to a more uniform hardness throughout. The fusion zone cross-section was found to morph from semicircular to double-parabolic (wavy) with increasing laser power. This was attributed to surface tension induced Marangoni flow and the influence of surface-activated species on surface tension. The applicability of coupled parameters, including linear heat input and normalized enthalpy were investigated. Given the limited data available on the influence of processing parameters, particularly working distance and substrate temperature, on fusion zone geometry and hardness, results reported here may aid experimentalists and modelers working on cladding and additive manufacturing processes.

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