Effect of enhanced prenatal and HIV-focused services for pregnant women who are infected by human immunodeficiency virus on emergency department use

Craig J. Newschaffer, Daohzi Zhang, Walter W. Hauck, Thomas Fanning, Barbara J. Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES. This study examines whether the receipt of enhanced prenatal or human immuno-defiency virus (HIV) medical services is associated with in-pregnancy emergency department (ED) utilization by HIV-infected women. METHODS. Medicaid and vital statistics records were linked for 1,826 women who are infected by HIV and who were delivered from 1993 to 1995 while receiving New York State Medicaid. The authors examined two types of ambulatory care-the Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) and enhanced care focused on HIV-that offer additional services in exchange for increased Medicaid reimbursement. From logistic regression models, the authors estimated adjusted associations of these types of care with ED use during pregnancy not leading directly to hospitalization. RESULTS. Fifty-three percent of pregnant women visited the ED. Women with ED use averaged 2.0 visits (SD = 1.1). After adjustment for demographic and substance use factors, enhanced care focused on HIV was not associated with any ED use (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.94, 1.30) or, among those using the ED at least once, with number of visits (P = 0.84). Interactions of receipt of PCAP care with the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index (APNCU) and having a usual source of care in pregnancy improved model fit (P < 0.001 and P = 0.06, respectively). PCAP was associated with increased ED use only among women with inadequate APNCU or no usual source of prenatal care. CONCLUSION. Pregnant women infected with HIV receiving Medicaid relied heavily on ED care. Use of the ED was not associated with services focused on HIV but was positively associated with enhanced prenatal care. The association of enhanced prenatal care with greater ED use was curbed for women with more timely and adequate prenatal care visits or a usual source of prenatal care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1308-1319
Number of pages12
JournalMedical care
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 1999


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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