This work explores the potential of high-intensity ultrasound to produce fine-dispersion, long-time-stable, oil-in-water emulsions prepared with native and glycated bovine sodium caseinate (SC). Regardless the ultrasound amplitude and time assayed, the sonicated emulsions of native SC at 0.5 mg/mL had much higher emulsifying activity indexes compared with those emulsions formed by Ultra-Turrax (IKA Werke GmbH & Co., Staufen, Germany) homogenization. Nevertheless, the native SC emulsions were very unstable despite the optimization of parameters such as protein concentration, amplitude of ultrasound wave, and sonication time by using a Box-Behnken design. Early glycation of SC with either galactose, lactose, or 10 kDa dextran substantially improved both emulsifying activity and the stability, whereas at advanced stages of glycation, SC emulsions showed notably reduced emulsifying properties, likely because extensive glycation of SC promoted its polymerization mainly through covalent cross-linking, as was demonstrated by particle size measurements. The increase in particle diameter of glycoconjugates likely affected the diffusion of SC from bulk to the oil-water interface and slowed the reorientation process of the protein at the interface. These findings show that the combined effect of early-stage glycation of SC and high-intensity ultrasound as an emergent technique to form emulsions has the potential to provide improved emulsions that could be used in several food applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology