Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna)

Drew E. Bittner, Jordan L. Sell, Grant Alexander Risha

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The focus of this research work was to characterize ignition and combustion of TMEDA / DMAZ fuels and white fuming nitric acid oxidizer, using a single-element injector to provide characteristics on hypergolic propellant reactants in terms of ignition delays under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature conditions. This study assists in determining whether TMEDA and DMAZ are viable replacements for highly toxic fuels such as hydrazine. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the ignition delay as a function of: volumetric flow rate, momentum ratio, L/D ratio, and equivalence ratio. High-speed images of the ignition transient were ascertained. As the total reactant volumetric flow rate increases, the ignition delay was reduced for ϕ = 1 and MTMEDA/MWFNA = 1. The ignition time delay decreased from nearly 17 ms down to approximately 5 ms when the total propellant flow rate was increased by a factor of six. The jet velocity of the fuel stream, VTMEDA, ranged from 8 to 66 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.3x104 to 3x104), while the jet velocity in the oxidizer stream, VWFNA, ranged from 2 to 60 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.4x104 to 4x104) in order to change the momentum ratio. The effect of equivalence ratio on ignition delay shows that at very fuel rich conditions (ϕ = 5.8) the ignition delay was approximately 3 times longer. However, for cases at ϕ = 3.2 and below, it was evident that the ignition delay is not significantly affected by stoichiometry. This can be interpreted, that for ignition, stoichiometry is not as nearly as important as for combustion. Blends of TMEDA and DMAZ fuels were examined. It was found for 70%TMEDA/30%DMAZ (by wt%), the ignition delay decreased nearly 38%. To simulate the reactants being introduced into a rocket engine, a curved glass surface was applied tangent to the injector exit to study the effect of wall impingement. Data show that when the curved glass surface is present, up to an 8 ms increase in ignition delay is observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference
PublisherAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc.
ISBN (Print)9781624102226
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Event49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, JPC 2013 - San Jose, United States
Duration: Jul 14 2013Jul 17 2013

Publication series

Name49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference
Volume1 PartF

Conference

Conference49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, JPC 2013
CountryUnited States
CitySan Jose
Period7/14/137/17/13

Fingerprint

Nitric acid
Ignition
Momentum
Flow rate
Propellants
Stoichiometry
Glass
Hydrazine
Rocket engines
Atmospheric pressure
Time delay

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Bittner, D. E., Sell, J. L., & Risha, G. A. (2013). Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna). In 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference (49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference; Vol. 1 PartF). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc.. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-4153
Bittner, Drew E. ; Sell, Jordan L. ; Risha, Grant Alexander. / Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna). 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc., 2013. (49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference).
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title = "Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna)",
abstract = "The focus of this research work was to characterize ignition and combustion of TMEDA / DMAZ fuels and white fuming nitric acid oxidizer, using a single-element injector to provide characteristics on hypergolic propellant reactants in terms of ignition delays under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature conditions. This study assists in determining whether TMEDA and DMAZ are viable replacements for highly toxic fuels such as hydrazine. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the ignition delay as a function of: volumetric flow rate, momentum ratio, L/D ratio, and equivalence ratio. High-speed images of the ignition transient were ascertained. As the total reactant volumetric flow rate increases, the ignition delay was reduced for ϕ = 1 and MTMEDA/MWFNA = 1. The ignition time delay decreased from nearly 17 ms down to approximately 5 ms when the total propellant flow rate was increased by a factor of six. The jet velocity of the fuel stream, VTMEDA, ranged from 8 to 66 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.3x104 to 3x104), while the jet velocity in the oxidizer stream, VWFNA, ranged from 2 to 60 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.4x104 to 4x104) in order to change the momentum ratio. The effect of equivalence ratio on ignition delay shows that at very fuel rich conditions (ϕ = 5.8) the ignition delay was approximately 3 times longer. However, for cases at ϕ = 3.2 and below, it was evident that the ignition delay is not significantly affected by stoichiometry. This can be interpreted, that for ignition, stoichiometry is not as nearly as important as for combustion. Blends of TMEDA and DMAZ fuels were examined. It was found for 70{\%}TMEDA/30{\%}DMAZ (by wt{\%}), the ignition delay decreased nearly 38{\%}. To simulate the reactants being introduced into a rocket engine, a curved glass surface was applied tangent to the injector exit to study the effect of wall impingement. Data show that when the curved glass surface is present, up to an 8 ms increase in ignition delay is observed.",
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Bittner, DE, Sell, JL & Risha, GA 2013, Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna). in 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, vol. 1 PartF, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc., 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, JPC 2013, San Jose, United States, 7/14/13. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-4153

Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna). / Bittner, Drew E.; Sell, Jordan L.; Risha, Grant Alexander.

49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc., 2013. (49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference; Vol. 1 PartF).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - The focus of this research work was to characterize ignition and combustion of TMEDA / DMAZ fuels and white fuming nitric acid oxidizer, using a single-element injector to provide characteristics on hypergolic propellant reactants in terms of ignition delays under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature conditions. This study assists in determining whether TMEDA and DMAZ are viable replacements for highly toxic fuels such as hydrazine. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the ignition delay as a function of: volumetric flow rate, momentum ratio, L/D ratio, and equivalence ratio. High-speed images of the ignition transient were ascertained. As the total reactant volumetric flow rate increases, the ignition delay was reduced for ϕ = 1 and MTMEDA/MWFNA = 1. The ignition time delay decreased from nearly 17 ms down to approximately 5 ms when the total propellant flow rate was increased by a factor of six. The jet velocity of the fuel stream, VTMEDA, ranged from 8 to 66 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.3x104 to 3x104), while the jet velocity in the oxidizer stream, VWFNA, ranged from 2 to 60 m/s (ReD from ~ 0.4x104 to 4x104) in order to change the momentum ratio. The effect of equivalence ratio on ignition delay shows that at very fuel rich conditions (ϕ = 5.8) the ignition delay was approximately 3 times longer. However, for cases at ϕ = 3.2 and below, it was evident that the ignition delay is not significantly affected by stoichiometry. This can be interpreted, that for ignition, stoichiometry is not as nearly as important as for combustion. Blends of TMEDA and DMAZ fuels were examined. It was found for 70%TMEDA/30%DMAZ (by wt%), the ignition delay decreased nearly 38%. To simulate the reactants being introduced into a rocket engine, a curved glass surface was applied tangent to the injector exit to study the effect of wall impingement. Data show that when the curved glass surface is present, up to an 8 ms increase in ignition delay is observed.

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Bittner DE, Sell JL, Risha GA. Effect of jet momentum ratio and equivalence ratio on the ignition process of tmeda and white fuming nitric acid (Wfna). In 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. 2013. (49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference). https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-4153