Effect of Lead Loss and Sheath Structure on Phase Formation and Alignment in (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ /Ag Composite Conductors

Jian Shu Luo, Nazarali Merchant, Victor A. Maroni, Stephen E. Dorris, Michael T. Lanagan, Benjamin S. Tani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The effects of metallic constituent evaporation and sheath structure on grain growth and alignment in silver‐sheathed (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ (Bi‐2223)/Ag composites have been investigated by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), X‐ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. Specimens of Bi‐2223/Ag composites fabricated by the oxide‐powder‐in‐tube technique were peeled (opened) lengthwise to expose the ceramic powder core, and then heat‐treated in 0.075 atm of oxygen for selected temperatures and times. The results were compared with those for as‐processed samples with closed silver sheaths treated under identical conditions. ICP/AES analysis indicated that lead was the only metallic element to undergo substantial evaporation during annealing of opened samples. The lead‐release process in parallel with the Bi‐2223 formation reaction had an activation energy of ∼25 kJ/mol. Lead loss from the opened samples resulted in incomplete conversion to Bi‐2223. The combined results show that the silver sheath effectively prevents evaporative lead loss, preserves and promotes densification, and induces texturing of the layered phases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2785-2789
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume78
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

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Atomic emission spectroscopy
Lead
Inductively coupled plasma
Silver
Composite materials
Evaporation
Plasma sheaths
Texturing
Grain growth
Densification
Powders
Activation energy
Diffraction
Spectroscopy
Annealing
Oxygen
Scanning electron microscopy
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Luo, Jian Shu ; Merchant, Nazarali ; Maroni, Victor A. ; Dorris, Stephen E. ; Lanagan, Michael T. ; Tani, Benjamin S. / Effect of Lead Loss and Sheath Structure on Phase Formation and Alignment in (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ /Ag Composite Conductors In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 1995 ; Vol. 78, No. 10. pp. 2785-2789.
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abstract = "The effects of metallic constituent evaporation and sheath structure on grain growth and alignment in silver‐sheathed (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ (Bi‐2223)/Ag composites have been investigated by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), X‐ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. Specimens of Bi‐2223/Ag composites fabricated by the oxide‐powder‐in‐tube technique were peeled (opened) lengthwise to expose the ceramic powder core, and then heat‐treated in 0.075 atm of oxygen for selected temperatures and times. The results were compared with those for as‐processed samples with closed silver sheaths treated under identical conditions. ICP/AES analysis indicated that lead was the only metallic element to undergo substantial evaporation during annealing of opened samples. The lead‐release process in parallel with the Bi‐2223 formation reaction had an activation energy of ∼25 kJ/mol. Lead loss from the opened samples resulted in incomplete conversion to Bi‐2223. The combined results show that the silver sheath effectively prevents evaporative lead loss, preserves and promotes densification, and induces texturing of the layered phases.",
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Effect of Lead Loss and Sheath Structure on Phase Formation and Alignment in (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ /Ag Composite Conductors . / Luo, Jian Shu; Merchant, Nazarali; Maroni, Victor A.; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Tani, Benjamin S.

In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 78, No. 10, 01.01.1995, p. 2785-2789.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The effects of metallic constituent evaporation and sheath structure on grain growth and alignment in silver‐sheathed (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ (Bi‐2223)/Ag composites have been investigated by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), X‐ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. Specimens of Bi‐2223/Ag composites fabricated by the oxide‐powder‐in‐tube technique were peeled (opened) lengthwise to expose the ceramic powder core, and then heat‐treated in 0.075 atm of oxygen for selected temperatures and times. The results were compared with those for as‐processed samples with closed silver sheaths treated under identical conditions. ICP/AES analysis indicated that lead was the only metallic element to undergo substantial evaporation during annealing of opened samples. The lead‐release process in parallel with the Bi‐2223 formation reaction had an activation energy of ∼25 kJ/mol. Lead loss from the opened samples resulted in incomplete conversion to Bi‐2223. The combined results show that the silver sheath effectively prevents evaporative lead loss, preserves and promotes densification, and induces texturing of the layered phases.

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