Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: Chemical and physical substrate analysis

Wei Wang, Xiaowen Chen, Bryon S. Donohoe, Peter N. Ciesielski, Rui Katahira, Erik M. Kuhn, Kabindra Kafle, Christopher M. Lee, Sunkyu Park, Seong Kim, Melvin P. Tucker, Michael E. Himmel, David K. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results: Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave® (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons' staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions: Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number57
JournalBiotechnology for Biofuels
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 9 2014

Fingerprint

Cellulose
Zea mays
Steam
Firearms
maize
cellulose
substrate
Acids
acid
Substrates
digestibility
accessibility
Biomass
Cell Wall
Electron microscopy
grinding
electron microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Enzymes
Cells

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Biotechnology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Cite this

Wang, Wei ; Chen, Xiaowen ; Donohoe, Bryon S. ; Ciesielski, Peter N. ; Katahira, Rui ; Kuhn, Erik M. ; Kafle, Kabindra ; Lee, Christopher M. ; Park, Sunkyu ; Kim, Seong ; Tucker, Melvin P. ; Himmel, Michael E. ; Johnson, David K. / Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1 : Chemical and physical substrate analysis. In: Biotechnology for Biofuels. 2014 ; Vol. 7, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results: Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave{\circledR} (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88{\%} and 95{\%}, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68{\%}). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons' staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions: Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process.",
author = "Wei Wang and Xiaowen Chen and Donohoe, {Bryon S.} and Ciesielski, {Peter N.} and Rui Katahira and Kuhn, {Erik M.} and Kabindra Kafle and Lee, {Christopher M.} and Sunkyu Park and Seong Kim and Tucker, {Melvin P.} and Himmel, {Michael E.} and Johnson, {David K.}",
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Wang, W, Chen, X, Donohoe, BS, Ciesielski, PN, Katahira, R, Kuhn, EM, Kafle, K, Lee, CM, Park, S, Kim, S, Tucker, MP, Himmel, ME & Johnson, DK 2014, 'Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: Chemical and physical substrate analysis', Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 7, no. 1, 57. https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-7-57

Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1 : Chemical and physical substrate analysis. / Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaowen; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Katahira, Rui; Kuhn, Erik M.; Kafle, Kabindra; Lee, Christopher M.; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Johnson, David K.

In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol. 7, No. 1, 57, 09.04.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1

T2 - Chemical and physical substrate analysis

AU - Wang, Wei

AU - Chen, Xiaowen

AU - Donohoe, Bryon S.

AU - Ciesielski, Peter N.

AU - Katahira, Rui

AU - Kuhn, Erik M.

AU - Kafle, Kabindra

AU - Lee, Christopher M.

AU - Park, Sunkyu

AU - Kim, Seong

AU - Tucker, Melvin P.

AU - Himmel, Michael E.

AU - Johnson, David K.

PY - 2014/4/9

Y1 - 2014/4/9

N2 - Background: There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results: Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave® (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons' staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions: Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process.

AB - Background: There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results: Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave® (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons' staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions: Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process.

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U2 - 10.1186/1754-6834-7-57

DO - 10.1186/1754-6834-7-57

M3 - Article

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