Objective: Dietary pattern changes, as a part of a healthy lifestyle, may improve weight management. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of midmorning puree snacks varying in macronutrient composition and energy content on subjective appetite, food intake, and glycemic and insulin responses in healthy adults. Method: In a randomized, repeated measures crossover design, 6 treatments (snack skipping and purees: control [186 kcal], maltodextrin [272 kcal], whey protein [201 kcal], oat [276 kcal], and coconut oil [276 kcal]) were administered to 23 normal weight adults (n = 14 males, n = 9 females). Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and insulin responses were measured at regular intervals for 2 hours immediately followed by an ad libitum pizza lunch. In vitro digestion experiments were conducted to corroborate results of the human trial. Results: Compared to snack skipping, all snack treatments similarly reduced subjective average appetite (net area under the curve), but only oat (p < 0.032) and coconut oil (p < 0.031) purees significantly decreased test meal food intake. However, caloric compensation did not differ among snack treatments (p < 0.73). Both blood glucose (incremental area under the curve [iAUC]; p < 0.0001) and serum insulin (iAUC; p < 0.0001) were affected by treatment. A positive correlation was found between blood glucose iAUC and in vitro glucose release (r = 0.993, p < 0.0001). The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) was sustained, and oats were difficult to disintegrate during in vitro digestion. Conclusions: Compared with snack skipping, coconut oil and oat puree snacks suppressed short-term food intake, which was likely due to the sustained release of FFA and slowly digestible oats, respectively. Our in vitro digestion model predicted the relative differences in the glycemic response in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics