Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations

Zhongqi Jia, Seongkyu Lee, Kalki Sharma, Kenneth Steven Brentner

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of pitch attitude on both performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on a first-principles and high-fidelity CFD/CSD loose coupling approach at 150 and 200 knots. The pitch attitudes selected for this research are -5◦, 0◦, and 5◦. The CFD/CSD loose coupling simulations are carried out using the CREATE™-AV software Helios while the coaxial rotor acoustics is simulated using PSU-WOPWOP at eight microphones positioned below the lower rotor. A detailed aerodynamic analysis is performed at 150 knots. A total of six major aerodynamic interactions are identified: 1) hub-wake interaction, 2) self-BVI, 3) parallel rotor-to-rotor BVI, 4) blade-crossover events, 5) root-induced BVI, and 6) reversed-flow-edge-vortex interactions. The strength of these interactions is dependent on the vehicle pitch attitude. The cases with negative pitch attitude show significantly stronger impulsive pressure pulses, which is found to be induced by parallel rotor-to-rotor BVIs of the lower rotor. Moreover, the positive and zero pitch attitude cases tend to dominate the acoustic region on the starboard side of the coaxial rotor, whereas the negative pitch attitude case shows higher acoustic pressure peaks on the port side. Overall, the case with a positive pitch attitude shows significant improvement in rotor aerodynamic efficiency, rotor acoustics, and vehicle power performance at high speed. The hemispherical acoustic simulation results at 150 knots also show that the noise is less likely to propagate in the forward direction with a positive pitch attitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
EventVertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display - Philadelphia, United States
Duration: May 13 2019May 16 2019

Conference

ConferenceVertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display
CountryUnited States
CityPhiladelphia
Period5/13/195/16/19

Fingerprint

Computational fluid dynamics
Rotors
Acoustics
Aerodynamics
Microphones
Turbomachine blades
Vortex flow

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering

Cite this

Jia, Z., Lee, S., Sharma, K., & Brentner, K. S. (2019). Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations. Paper presented at Vertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Philadelphia, United States.
Jia, Zhongqi ; Lee, Seongkyu ; Sharma, Kalki ; Brentner, Kenneth Steven. / Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations. Paper presented at Vertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Philadelphia, United States.
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abstract = "This paper investigates the effect of pitch attitude on both performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on a first-principles and high-fidelity CFD/CSD loose coupling approach at 150 and 200 knots. The pitch attitudes selected for this research are -5◦, 0◦, and 5◦. The CFD/CSD loose coupling simulations are carried out using the CREATE™-AV software Helios while the coaxial rotor acoustics is simulated using PSU-WOPWOP at eight microphones positioned below the lower rotor. A detailed aerodynamic analysis is performed at 150 knots. A total of six major aerodynamic interactions are identified: 1) hub-wake interaction, 2) self-BVI, 3) parallel rotor-to-rotor BVI, 4) blade-crossover events, 5) root-induced BVI, and 6) reversed-flow-edge-vortex interactions. The strength of these interactions is dependent on the vehicle pitch attitude. The cases with negative pitch attitude show significantly stronger impulsive pressure pulses, which is found to be induced by parallel rotor-to-rotor BVIs of the lower rotor. Moreover, the positive and zero pitch attitude cases tend to dominate the acoustic region on the starboard side of the coaxial rotor, whereas the negative pitch attitude case shows higher acoustic pressure peaks on the port side. Overall, the case with a positive pitch attitude shows significant improvement in rotor aerodynamic efficiency, rotor acoustics, and vehicle power performance at high speed. The hemispherical acoustic simulation results at 150 knots also show that the noise is less likely to propagate in the forward direction with a positive pitch attitude.",
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Jia, Z, Lee, S, Sharma, K & Brentner, KS 2019, 'Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations' Paper presented at Vertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Philadelphia, United States, 5/13/19 - 5/16/19, .

Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations. / Jia, Zhongqi; Lee, Seongkyu; Sharma, Kalki; Brentner, Kenneth Steven.

2019. Paper presented at Vertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Philadelphia, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations

AU - Jia, Zhongqi

AU - Lee, Seongkyu

AU - Sharma, Kalki

AU - Brentner, Kenneth Steven

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - This paper investigates the effect of pitch attitude on both performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on a first-principles and high-fidelity CFD/CSD loose coupling approach at 150 and 200 knots. The pitch attitudes selected for this research are -5◦, 0◦, and 5◦. The CFD/CSD loose coupling simulations are carried out using the CREATE™-AV software Helios while the coaxial rotor acoustics is simulated using PSU-WOPWOP at eight microphones positioned below the lower rotor. A detailed aerodynamic analysis is performed at 150 knots. A total of six major aerodynamic interactions are identified: 1) hub-wake interaction, 2) self-BVI, 3) parallel rotor-to-rotor BVI, 4) blade-crossover events, 5) root-induced BVI, and 6) reversed-flow-edge-vortex interactions. The strength of these interactions is dependent on the vehicle pitch attitude. The cases with negative pitch attitude show significantly stronger impulsive pressure pulses, which is found to be induced by parallel rotor-to-rotor BVIs of the lower rotor. Moreover, the positive and zero pitch attitude cases tend to dominate the acoustic region on the starboard side of the coaxial rotor, whereas the negative pitch attitude case shows higher acoustic pressure peaks on the port side. Overall, the case with a positive pitch attitude shows significant improvement in rotor aerodynamic efficiency, rotor acoustics, and vehicle power performance at high speed. The hemispherical acoustic simulation results at 150 knots also show that the noise is less likely to propagate in the forward direction with a positive pitch attitude.

AB - This paper investigates the effect of pitch attitude on both performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on a first-principles and high-fidelity CFD/CSD loose coupling approach at 150 and 200 knots. The pitch attitudes selected for this research are -5◦, 0◦, and 5◦. The CFD/CSD loose coupling simulations are carried out using the CREATE™-AV software Helios while the coaxial rotor acoustics is simulated using PSU-WOPWOP at eight microphones positioned below the lower rotor. A detailed aerodynamic analysis is performed at 150 knots. A total of six major aerodynamic interactions are identified: 1) hub-wake interaction, 2) self-BVI, 3) parallel rotor-to-rotor BVI, 4) blade-crossover events, 5) root-induced BVI, and 6) reversed-flow-edge-vortex interactions. The strength of these interactions is dependent on the vehicle pitch attitude. The cases with negative pitch attitude show significantly stronger impulsive pressure pulses, which is found to be induced by parallel rotor-to-rotor BVIs of the lower rotor. Moreover, the positive and zero pitch attitude cases tend to dominate the acoustic region on the starboard side of the coaxial rotor, whereas the negative pitch attitude case shows higher acoustic pressure peaks on the port side. Overall, the case with a positive pitch attitude shows significant improvement in rotor aerodynamic efficiency, rotor acoustics, and vehicle power performance at high speed. The hemispherical acoustic simulation results at 150 knots also show that the noise is less likely to propagate in the forward direction with a positive pitch attitude.

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M3 - Paper

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Jia Z, Lee S, Sharma K, Brentner KS. Effect of pitch attitude on the performance and acoustics of a lift-offset coaxial rotor based on high-fidelity CFD/CSD simulations. 2019. Paper presented at Vertical Flight Society's 75th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Philadelphia, United States.