Effect of weight loss induced by energy restriction on measures of arterial compliance: A systematic review and meta-analysis

K. S. Petersen, P. M. Clifton, N. Lister, J. B. Keogh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials involving adults, to determine the effect of weight loss induced by energy restriction with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on measures of arterial stiffness and compliance. Methods: A systematic search of Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library was conducted to find intervention trials (randomised/non-randomised) that aimed to achieve weight loss and included the following outcome measures: cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), direct measures of area/diameter related to pressure change (including β-stiffness index, brachial or carotid artery compliance, aortic, carotid or brachial artery distensibility and strain), measures derived from peripheral pulse wave analysis (including augmentation index, augmentation pressure, distal oscillatory, proximal capacitive and systemic compliance) and pulse pressure. Data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis V2 using random effects analysis. Standardised mean difference (SMD) is reported with negative values indicating an improvement. Results: A total of 43 studies, involving 4231 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. Mean weight loss was approximately 11% of initial body weight. Weight loss improved CAVI (SMD -0.48; p = 0.04), β-stiffness index (SMD = -0.98; p = 0.001), arterial compliance (SMD = -0.61; p = 0.0001) and distensibility (SMD -1.10; p = 0.005), distal oscillatory compliance (SMD = -0.41; p = 0.03), proximal capacitive compliance (SMD -0.66; p = 0.009), systemic arterial compliance (SMD -0.71; p = 0.003) and reflection time (SMD -0.51; p = 0.001). Augmentation index, strain, augmentation pressure and pulse pressure were not significantly changed with weight loss. Conclusion: Weight loss induced by energy restriction improves some measures of arterial compliance and stiffness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-20
Number of pages14
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume247
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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