Effects of brain stem cholecystokinin-8s on gastric tone and esophagealgastric reflex

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Abstract

The actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) on gastrointestinal functions occur mainly via paracrine effects on peripheral sensory vagal fibers, which engage vago-vagal brain stem circuits to convey effector responses back to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests, however, that CCK also affects brain stem structures directly. Many electrophysiological studies, including our own, have shown that brain stem vagal circuits are excited by sulfated CCK (CCK-8s) directly, and we have further demonstrated that CCK-8s induces a remarkable degree of plasticity in GABAergic brain stem synapses. In the present study, we used fasted, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of brain stem administration of CCK-8s on gastric tone before and after activation of the esophageal-gastric reflex. CCK-8s microinjected in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) or applied on the floor of the fourth ventricle induced an immediate and transient decrease in gastric tone. Upon recovery of gastric tone to baseline values, the gastric relaxation induced by esophageal distension was attenuated or even reversed. The effects of CCK-8s were antagonized by vagotomy or fourth ventricular, but not intravenous, administration of the CCK-A antagonist lorglumide, suggesting a central, not peripheral, site of action. The gastric relaxation induced by DVC microinjection of CCK-8s was unaffected by pretreatment with systemic bethanecol but was completely blocked by N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting a nitrergic mechanism of action. These data suggest that 1) brain stem application of CCK-8s induces a vagally mediated gastric relaxation; 2) the CCK-8s-induced gastric relaxation is mediated via activation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic pathways; and 3) CCK-8s reverses the esophageal-gastric reflex transiently.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume296
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

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Cholecystokinin
Brain Stem
Reflex
Stomach
Bethanechol
Fourth Ventricle
Vagotomy
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
Microinjections
Intravenous Administration
Synapses
Sprague Dawley Rats
Gastrointestinal Tract

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Effects of brain stem cholecystokinin-8s on gastric tone and esophagealgastric reflex",
abstract = "The actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) on gastrointestinal functions occur mainly via paracrine effects on peripheral sensory vagal fibers, which engage vago-vagal brain stem circuits to convey effector responses back to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests, however, that CCK also affects brain stem structures directly. Many electrophysiological studies, including our own, have shown that brain stem vagal circuits are excited by sulfated CCK (CCK-8s) directly, and we have further demonstrated that CCK-8s induces a remarkable degree of plasticity in GABAergic brain stem synapses. In the present study, we used fasted, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of brain stem administration of CCK-8s on gastric tone before and after activation of the esophageal-gastric reflex. CCK-8s microinjected in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) or applied on the floor of the fourth ventricle induced an immediate and transient decrease in gastric tone. Upon recovery of gastric tone to baseline values, the gastric relaxation induced by esophageal distension was attenuated or even reversed. The effects of CCK-8s were antagonized by vagotomy or fourth ventricular, but not intravenous, administration of the CCK-A antagonist lorglumide, suggesting a central, not peripheral, site of action. The gastric relaxation induced by DVC microinjection of CCK-8s was unaffected by pretreatment with systemic bethanecol but was completely blocked by N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting a nitrergic mechanism of action. These data suggest that 1) brain stem application of CCK-8s induces a vagally mediated gastric relaxation; 2) the CCK-8s-induced gastric relaxation is mediated via activation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic pathways; and 3) CCK-8s reverses the esophageal-gastric reflex transiently.",
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AU - Holmes, Gregory

AU - Tong, Melissa

AU - Travagli, Renato Alberto

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N2 - The actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) on gastrointestinal functions occur mainly via paracrine effects on peripheral sensory vagal fibers, which engage vago-vagal brain stem circuits to convey effector responses back to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests, however, that CCK also affects brain stem structures directly. Many electrophysiological studies, including our own, have shown that brain stem vagal circuits are excited by sulfated CCK (CCK-8s) directly, and we have further demonstrated that CCK-8s induces a remarkable degree of plasticity in GABAergic brain stem synapses. In the present study, we used fasted, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of brain stem administration of CCK-8s on gastric tone before and after activation of the esophageal-gastric reflex. CCK-8s microinjected in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) or applied on the floor of the fourth ventricle induced an immediate and transient decrease in gastric tone. Upon recovery of gastric tone to baseline values, the gastric relaxation induced by esophageal distension was attenuated or even reversed. The effects of CCK-8s were antagonized by vagotomy or fourth ventricular, but not intravenous, administration of the CCK-A antagonist lorglumide, suggesting a central, not peripheral, site of action. The gastric relaxation induced by DVC microinjection of CCK-8s was unaffected by pretreatment with systemic bethanecol but was completely blocked by N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting a nitrergic mechanism of action. These data suggest that 1) brain stem application of CCK-8s induces a vagally mediated gastric relaxation; 2) the CCK-8s-induced gastric relaxation is mediated via activation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic pathways; and 3) CCK-8s reverses the esophageal-gastric reflex transiently.

AB - The actions of cholecystokinin (CCK) on gastrointestinal functions occur mainly via paracrine effects on peripheral sensory vagal fibers, which engage vago-vagal brain stem circuits to convey effector responses back to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests, however, that CCK also affects brain stem structures directly. Many electrophysiological studies, including our own, have shown that brain stem vagal circuits are excited by sulfated CCK (CCK-8s) directly, and we have further demonstrated that CCK-8s induces a remarkable degree of plasticity in GABAergic brain stem synapses. In the present study, we used fasted, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of brain stem administration of CCK-8s on gastric tone before and after activation of the esophageal-gastric reflex. CCK-8s microinjected in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) or applied on the floor of the fourth ventricle induced an immediate and transient decrease in gastric tone. Upon recovery of gastric tone to baseline values, the gastric relaxation induced by esophageal distension was attenuated or even reversed. The effects of CCK-8s were antagonized by vagotomy or fourth ventricular, but not intravenous, administration of the CCK-A antagonist lorglumide, suggesting a central, not peripheral, site of action. The gastric relaxation induced by DVC microinjection of CCK-8s was unaffected by pretreatment with systemic bethanecol but was completely blocked by N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting a nitrergic mechanism of action. These data suggest that 1) brain stem application of CCK-8s induces a vagally mediated gastric relaxation; 2) the CCK-8s-induced gastric relaxation is mediated via activation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic pathways; and 3) CCK-8s reverses the esophageal-gastric reflex transiently.

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