The effects of five carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sorbitol, and sucrose) and two explant types (petals and staminodes) on cacao somatic embryogenesis was studied. No growth was observed on both types of explants cultured on sorbitol containing media and slow growth was obtained on media supplemented with maltose. Depending on the genotype, the percentage of explants producing one or more embryos ranged from 6% to 99%, 18% to 98%, and 3% to 82% on media containing glucose, fructose and sucrose respectively. Explants cultured continuously on maltose or sorbitol-containing media failed to produce embryos. Staminode explants produced 3 to 10 times more somatic embryos than petals. A strong genotypic effect on somatic embryogenesis was observed. Staminode explants of the Forastero clones Laranja and PSUSca 6 produced 2 to 30 times more somatic embryos than the Trinitarios UF 613 and ICS 16. During embryo maturation and conversion, no significant differences were observed among glucose, fructose, maltose, or sucrose for embryo weight, total shoot and root production. However, we found that all plantlets produced on glucose had shoots with normal cacao leaves while the other carbon sources sometimes produced plantlets with cotyledon-like leaves.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes