Effects of dark chocolate and almonds on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals

A randomized controlled-feeding trial

Yujin Lee, Claire E. Berryman, Sheila Grace West, C. Y.Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B. Blumberg, Karen G. Lapsley, Amy G. Preston, Jennifer Anne Fleming, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background--Consumption of almonds or dark chocolate and cocoa has favorable effects on markers of coronary heart disease; however, the combined effects have not been evaluated in a well-controlled feeding study. The aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa and almonds on markers of coronary heart disease risk. Methods and Results--A randomized controlled, 4-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in overweight and obese individuals aged 30 to 70 years. Forty-eight participants were randomized, and 31 participants completed the entire study. Each diet period was 4 weeks long, followed by a 2-week compliance break. Participants consumed each of 4 isocaloric, weight maintenance diets: (1) no treatment foods (average American diet), (2) 42.5 g/d of almonds (almond diet [ALD]), (3) 18 g/d of cocoa powder and 43 g/d of dark chocolate (chocolate diet [CHOC]), or (4) all 3 foods (CHOC+ALD). Compared with the average American diet, total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the ALD were lower by 4%, 5%, and 7%, respectively (P < 0.05). The CHOC+ALD decreased apolipoprotein B by 5% compared with the average American diet. For low-density lipoprotein subclasses, compared with the average American diet, the ALD showed a greater reduction in large buoyant low-density lipoprotein particles (-5.7±2.3 versus -0.3±2.3 mg/ dL; P=0.04), whereas the CHOC+ALD had a greater decrease in small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (-12.0±2.8 versus -5.3±2.8 mg/dL; P=0.04). There were no significant differences between diets for measures of vascular health and oxidative stress. Conclusions--Our results demonstrate that consumption of almonds alone or combined with dark chocolate under controlledfeeding conditions improves lipid profiles. Incorporating almonds, dark chocolate, and cocoa into a typical American diet without exceeding energy needs may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere005162
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume6
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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Randomized Controlled Trials
Diet
LDL Lipoproteins
Coronary Disease
Chocolate
Prunus dulcis
Food
Apolipoproteins B
LDL Cholesterol
Cross-Over Studies
Compliance
Blood Vessels
Oxidative Stress
Cholesterol
Maintenance

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{aa2d513927f74a15ac9dad284b39dcb7,
title = "Effects of dark chocolate and almonds on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals: A randomized controlled-feeding trial",
abstract = "Background--Consumption of almonds or dark chocolate and cocoa has favorable effects on markers of coronary heart disease; however, the combined effects have not been evaluated in a well-controlled feeding study. The aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa and almonds on markers of coronary heart disease risk. Methods and Results--A randomized controlled, 4-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in overweight and obese individuals aged 30 to 70 years. Forty-eight participants were randomized, and 31 participants completed the entire study. Each diet period was 4 weeks long, followed by a 2-week compliance break. Participants consumed each of 4 isocaloric, weight maintenance diets: (1) no treatment foods (average American diet), (2) 42.5 g/d of almonds (almond diet [ALD]), (3) 18 g/d of cocoa powder and 43 g/d of dark chocolate (chocolate diet [CHOC]), or (4) all 3 foods (CHOC+ALD). Compared with the average American diet, total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the ALD were lower by 4{\%}, 5{\%}, and 7{\%}, respectively (P < 0.05). The CHOC+ALD decreased apolipoprotein B by 5{\%} compared with the average American diet. For low-density lipoprotein subclasses, compared with the average American diet, the ALD showed a greater reduction in large buoyant low-density lipoprotein particles (-5.7±2.3 versus -0.3±2.3 mg/ dL; P=0.04), whereas the CHOC+ALD had a greater decrease in small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (-12.0±2.8 versus -5.3±2.8 mg/dL; P=0.04). There were no significant differences between diets for measures of vascular health and oxidative stress. Conclusions--Our results demonstrate that consumption of almonds alone or combined with dark chocolate under controlledfeeding conditions improves lipid profiles. Incorporating almonds, dark chocolate, and cocoa into a typical American diet without exceeding energy needs may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.",
author = "Yujin Lee and Berryman, {Claire E.} and West, {Sheila Grace} and Chen, {C. Y.Oliver} and Blumberg, {Jeffrey B.} and Lapsley, {Karen G.} and Preston, {Amy G.} and Fleming, {Jennifer Anne} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny Margaret}",
year = "2017",
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doi = "10.1161/JAHA.116.005162",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
journal = "Journal of the American Heart Association",
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Effects of dark chocolate and almonds on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals : A randomized controlled-feeding trial. / Lee, Yujin; Berryman, Claire E.; West, Sheila Grace; Chen, C. Y.Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Lapsley, Karen G.; Preston, Amy G.; Fleming, Jennifer Anne; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret.

In: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 6, No. 12, e005162, 01.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of dark chocolate and almonds on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals

T2 - A randomized controlled-feeding trial

AU - Lee, Yujin

AU - Berryman, Claire E.

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - Chen, C. Y.Oliver

AU - Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

AU - Lapsley, Karen G.

AU - Preston, Amy G.

AU - Fleming, Jennifer Anne

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - Background--Consumption of almonds or dark chocolate and cocoa has favorable effects on markers of coronary heart disease; however, the combined effects have not been evaluated in a well-controlled feeding study. The aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa and almonds on markers of coronary heart disease risk. Methods and Results--A randomized controlled, 4-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in overweight and obese individuals aged 30 to 70 years. Forty-eight participants were randomized, and 31 participants completed the entire study. Each diet period was 4 weeks long, followed by a 2-week compliance break. Participants consumed each of 4 isocaloric, weight maintenance diets: (1) no treatment foods (average American diet), (2) 42.5 g/d of almonds (almond diet [ALD]), (3) 18 g/d of cocoa powder and 43 g/d of dark chocolate (chocolate diet [CHOC]), or (4) all 3 foods (CHOC+ALD). Compared with the average American diet, total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the ALD were lower by 4%, 5%, and 7%, respectively (P < 0.05). The CHOC+ALD decreased apolipoprotein B by 5% compared with the average American diet. For low-density lipoprotein subclasses, compared with the average American diet, the ALD showed a greater reduction in large buoyant low-density lipoprotein particles (-5.7±2.3 versus -0.3±2.3 mg/ dL; P=0.04), whereas the CHOC+ALD had a greater decrease in small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (-12.0±2.8 versus -5.3±2.8 mg/dL; P=0.04). There were no significant differences between diets for measures of vascular health and oxidative stress. Conclusions--Our results demonstrate that consumption of almonds alone or combined with dark chocolate under controlledfeeding conditions improves lipid profiles. Incorporating almonds, dark chocolate, and cocoa into a typical American diet without exceeding energy needs may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

AB - Background--Consumption of almonds or dark chocolate and cocoa has favorable effects on markers of coronary heart disease; however, the combined effects have not been evaluated in a well-controlled feeding study. The aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa and almonds on markers of coronary heart disease risk. Methods and Results--A randomized controlled, 4-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in overweight and obese individuals aged 30 to 70 years. Forty-eight participants were randomized, and 31 participants completed the entire study. Each diet period was 4 weeks long, followed by a 2-week compliance break. Participants consumed each of 4 isocaloric, weight maintenance diets: (1) no treatment foods (average American diet), (2) 42.5 g/d of almonds (almond diet [ALD]), (3) 18 g/d of cocoa powder and 43 g/d of dark chocolate (chocolate diet [CHOC]), or (4) all 3 foods (CHOC+ALD). Compared with the average American diet, total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the ALD were lower by 4%, 5%, and 7%, respectively (P < 0.05). The CHOC+ALD decreased apolipoprotein B by 5% compared with the average American diet. For low-density lipoprotein subclasses, compared with the average American diet, the ALD showed a greater reduction in large buoyant low-density lipoprotein particles (-5.7±2.3 versus -0.3±2.3 mg/ dL; P=0.04), whereas the CHOC+ALD had a greater decrease in small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (-12.0±2.8 versus -5.3±2.8 mg/dL; P=0.04). There were no significant differences between diets for measures of vascular health and oxidative stress. Conclusions--Our results demonstrate that consumption of almonds alone or combined with dark chocolate under controlledfeeding conditions improves lipid profiles. Incorporating almonds, dark chocolate, and cocoa into a typical American diet without exceeding energy needs may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

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DO - 10.1161/JAHA.116.005162

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