Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults

Sheila Grace West, Molly D. McIntyre, Matthew J. Piotrowski, Nathalie Poupin, Debra Lynn Miller, Amy G. Preston, Paul Wagner, Lisa F. Groves, Ann C. Skulas-Ray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37A g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoaA =A 22A g/d, total flavanols (TF)A =A 814A mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TFA =A 3A mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6A % (+2A mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22A %. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P=A 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4A mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-661
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume111
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2014

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Vascular Stiffness
Fasting
Beverages
Fats
Blood Pressure
Therapeutics
Brachial Artery
Hyperemia
Arterioles
Blood Volume
Vasodilation
Cross-Over Studies
Blood Vessels
Insulin Resistance
Dilatation
Arteries
Color
Placebos
Carbohydrates
Chocolate

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

West, S. G., McIntyre, M. D., Piotrowski, M. J., Poupin, N., Miller, D. L., Preston, A. G., ... Skulas-Ray, A. C. (2014). Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(4), 653-661. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513002912
West, Sheila Grace ; McIntyre, Molly D. ; Piotrowski, Matthew J. ; Poupin, Nathalie ; Miller, Debra Lynn ; Preston, Amy G. ; Wagner, Paul ; Groves, Lisa F. ; Skulas-Ray, Ann C. / Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults. In: British Journal of Nutrition. 2014 ; Vol. 111, No. 4. pp. 653-661.
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West, SG, McIntyre, MD, Piotrowski, MJ, Poupin, N, Miller, DL, Preston, AG, Wagner, P, Groves, LF & Skulas-Ray, AC 2014, 'Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults', British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 653-661. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513002912

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults. / West, Sheila Grace; McIntyre, Molly D.; Piotrowski, Matthew J.; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra Lynn; Preston, Amy G.; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.

In: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 111, No. 4, 28.02.2014, p. 653-661.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - McIntyre, Molly D.

AU - Piotrowski, Matthew J.

AU - Poupin, Nathalie

AU - Miller, Debra Lynn

AU - Preston, Amy G.

AU - Wagner, Paul

AU - Groves, Lisa F.

AU - Skulas-Ray, Ann C.

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N2 - The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37A g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoaA =A 22A g/d, total flavanols (TF)A =A 814A mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TFA =A 3A mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6A % (+2A mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22A %. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P=A 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4A mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

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