Effects of dilution on fine particle mass and partitioning of semivolatile organics in diesel exhaust and wood smoke

Eric M. Lipsky, Allen L. Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

203 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of dilution on fine particle mass emissions from a diesel engine and wood stove. Filter measurements were made simultaneously using three dilution sampling systems operating at dilution ratios ranging from 20:1 to 510:1. Denuders and backup filters were used to quantify organic sampling artifacts. For the diesel engine operating at low load and wood combustion, large decreases in fine particle mass emissions were observed with increases in dilution. For example, the PM2.5 mass emission rate from a diesel engine operating at low load decreased by 50% when the dilution ratio was increased from 20:1 to 350:1. Measurements of organic and elemental carbon indicate that the changes in fine particle mass with dilution are caused by changes in partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. At low levels of dilution semivolatile species largely occur in the particle phase, but increasing dilution reduces the concentration of semivolatile species, shifting this material to the gas phase in order to maintain phase equilibrium. Emissions of elemental carbon do not vary with dilution. Organic sampling artifacts are shown to vary with dilution because of the combination of changes in partitioning coupled with adsorption of gas-phase organics by quartz filters. The fine particle mass emissions from the diesel engine operating at medium load did not vary with dilution because of the lower emissions of semivolatile material and higher emissions of elemental carbon. To measure partitioning of semivolatile materials under atmospheric conditions, partitioning theory indicates that dilution samplers need to be operated such that the diluted exhaust achieves atmospheric levels of dilution. Too little dilution can potentially overestimate the fine particle mass emissions, and too much dilution (with clean air) can underestimate them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-162
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume40
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006

Fingerprint

Vehicle Emissions
Smoke
smoke
Dilution
diesel
Wood
dilution
partitioning
diesel engine
Diesel engines
Carbon
particle
effect
Sampling
filter
artifact
carbon
sampling
Gases
Stoves

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of dilution on fine particle mass emissions from a diesel engine and wood stove. Filter measurements were made simultaneously using three dilution sampling systems operating at dilution ratios ranging from 20:1 to 510:1. Denuders and backup filters were used to quantify organic sampling artifacts. For the diesel engine operating at low load and wood combustion, large decreases in fine particle mass emissions were observed with increases in dilution. For example, the PM2.5 mass emission rate from a diesel engine operating at low load decreased by 50{\%} when the dilution ratio was increased from 20:1 to 350:1. Measurements of organic and elemental carbon indicate that the changes in fine particle mass with dilution are caused by changes in partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. At low levels of dilution semivolatile species largely occur in the particle phase, but increasing dilution reduces the concentration of semivolatile species, shifting this material to the gas phase in order to maintain phase equilibrium. Emissions of elemental carbon do not vary with dilution. Organic sampling artifacts are shown to vary with dilution because of the combination of changes in partitioning coupled with adsorption of gas-phase organics by quartz filters. The fine particle mass emissions from the diesel engine operating at medium load did not vary with dilution because of the lower emissions of semivolatile material and higher emissions of elemental carbon. To measure partitioning of semivolatile materials under atmospheric conditions, partitioning theory indicates that dilution samplers need to be operated such that the diluted exhaust achieves atmospheric levels of dilution. Too little dilution can potentially overestimate the fine particle mass emissions, and too much dilution (with clean air) can underestimate them.",
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Effects of dilution on fine particle mass and partitioning of semivolatile organics in diesel exhaust and wood smoke. / Lipsky, Eric M.; Robinson, Allen L.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 01.01.2006, p. 155-162.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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