Effects of general anesthesia on 2 urinary biomarkers of kidney injury-hepatitis a virus cellular receptor 1 and lipocalin 2-in male C57BL/6J mice

Krista M. Gibbs, Jenelle M. Izer, W. Brian Reeves, Ronald P. Wilson, Timothy K. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Urinary biomarkers are used increasingly for sensitive prediction of kidney injury in preclinical and clinical studies. Given the frequent requirement of anesthesia in various animal models of disease, it is important to define the effects of anesthesia on kidney injury biomarkers to guide the appropriate selection of anesthetic agents and to avoid potential confounders in the interpretation of data. Therefore, we performed a prospective study using male C57BL/6J mice (n = 45) exposed to a single anesthetic episode to determine the effects several common anesthesia regimens on the urinary excretion of 2 commonly used kidney injury biomarkers: hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, also known as KIM1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2, also known as NGAL). We evaluated 3 injectable regimens (ketamine-xylazine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and pentobarbital) and 2 inhalational agents (isoflurane and sevoflurane). Concentrations of HAVCR1 and LCN2 in urine collected at various time points after anesthesia were measured by using ELISA. Administration of ketamine-xylazine resulted in a significant increase in HAVCR1 levels at 6 h after anesthesia but a decrease in LCN2 levels compared with baseline. LCN2 levels steadily increased over the first 24 h after inhalant anesthesia, with a significant increase at 24 h after sevoflurane. These results suggest that injectable anesthesia had early effects on HAVCR1 and LCN2 levels, whereas inhalational agents increased these biomarkers over prolonged time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-29
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this