Numerous studies have examined the association between pharmacogenetic effects and the response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with asthma. In fact, several single nucleotide polymorphisms of a number of candidate genes have been identified that might influence the clinical response to ICS in children with asthma. Their direct or indirect effects depend on their role in the inflammatory process in asthma or the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, respectively. Among the genes identified, variants in T-box 21 (TBX21) and Fc fragment of IgE receptor II (FCER2) contribute indirectly to the variability in the response to ICS by altering the inflammatory mechanisms in asthma, while other genes such as corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1), stress induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), glucocorticoid induced 1 (GLCCI1), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC), ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 (ORMDL3), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) directly affect this variability through the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of ICS. The results to date indicate various potential genetic factors associated with the response to ICS, which could be utilized to predict the individual therapeutic response of children with asthma to ICS. Clinical trials are underway and their results are greatly anticipated. Further pharmacogenetic studies are needed to fully understand the effects of genetic variation on the response to ICS in children with asthma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology
- Biochemistry, medical