# Effects of hydrogen on the radiation response of bipolar transistors: Experiment and modeling

I. G. Batyrev, D. Hughart, R. Durand, M. Bounasser, B. R. Tuttle, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, S. N. Rashkeev, G. W. Dunham, M. Law, S. T. Pantelides

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### Abstract

Reactions of ${\rm H}-{2}$ in lateral PNP BJTs are investigated through experiments and simulations. Pre-irradiation hydrogen exposure makes the devices more sensitive to ionizing radiation, which is explained through first-principles calculations and numerical simulations. Mechanisms for the cracking of hydrogen molecules and proton generation are proposed. We also suggest a mechanism of formation of border traps. When protons are trapped by oxygen vacancies right at or very near the interface, they form electrically active defects near the middle of the band gap. Activation energies of the reaction are used to construct rate equations. The rate equations are solved numerically to determine the spatial and temporal concentrations of hydrogen, holes, and protons. The calculated concentrations of interface and border traps agree well with the experimental results and help to explain the role of hydrogen in determining the total-dose response of BJTs.

Original language English (US) 4723752 3039-3045 7 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 55 6 https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2008.2009353 Published - Dec 1 2008

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

• Nuclear and High Energy Physics
• Nuclear Energy and Engineering
• Electrical and Electronic Engineering

• ## Cite this

Batyrev, I. G., Hughart, D., Durand, R., Bounasser, M., Tuttle, B. R., Fleetwood, D. M., Schrimpf, R. D., Rashkeev, S. N., Dunham, G. W., Law, M., & Pantelides, S. T. (2008). Effects of hydrogen on the radiation response of bipolar transistors: Experiment and modeling. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 55(6), 3039-3045. [4723752]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2008.2009353