Effects of individual risk and state housing factors on adverse outcomes in a national sample of youth transitioning out of foster care

Dana M. Prince, Sarah Vidal, Nathanael Okpych, Christian Connell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Compared to their peers, youth who leave the foster care system without permanency experience greater risks for adverse young adult outcomes, including homelessness, incarceration, substance abuse, and early child birth. Extant literature focuses on individual-level factors related to adversity. In this study, we estimated the impact of state and individual-level risk and protective factors on adverse 19-year-old outcomes among a cohort of U.S. transition age youth. Methods: We used multilevel modeling to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from two waves of the National Youth in Transitions Database (N = 7449). These data were linked to the Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System, the Administration for Children and Families budget expenditures, and the American Community Survey for the period from 2011 to 2013. Results: Approximately 30% of the variation in each of the 19-year-old outcomes could be attributed to state-level effects. Residence in a state that spent above average of CFCIP budget on housing supports reduced the risk of homelessness and incarceration. Living in a state with a higher proportion of housing-burdened low-income renters significantly increased the risk of substance abuse and child birth. Individual-level risks were significant: racial/ethnic minority, male gender, past risk history, placement instability, child behavioral problems, residence in group home or runaway. Remaining in foster care at age 19 reduced the odds of homelessness, incarceration, and substance abuse. Conclusion: Macro factors, including financial support for transition-age youth, and broader housing market characteristics, have a bearing on young adult outcomes, and raise policy questions across social and human service sectors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-44
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Adolescence
Volume74
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Fingerprint

Homeless Persons
Substance-Related Disorders
Budgets
Young Adult
Parturition
Group Homes
Homeless Youth
Financial Support
Health Expenditures
Social Work
Databases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

@article{47a121fedd8847a3be5a4df1d38ab810,
title = "Effects of individual risk and state housing factors on adverse outcomes in a national sample of youth transitioning out of foster care",
abstract = "Introduction: Compared to their peers, youth who leave the foster care system without permanency experience greater risks for adverse young adult outcomes, including homelessness, incarceration, substance abuse, and early child birth. Extant literature focuses on individual-level factors related to adversity. In this study, we estimated the impact of state and individual-level risk and protective factors on adverse 19-year-old outcomes among a cohort of U.S. transition age youth. Methods: We used multilevel modeling to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from two waves of the National Youth in Transitions Database (N = 7449). These data were linked to the Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System, the Administration for Children and Families budget expenditures, and the American Community Survey for the period from 2011 to 2013. Results: Approximately 30{\%} of the variation in each of the 19-year-old outcomes could be attributed to state-level effects. Residence in a state that spent above average of CFCIP budget on housing supports reduced the risk of homelessness and incarceration. Living in a state with a higher proportion of housing-burdened low-income renters significantly increased the risk of substance abuse and child birth. Individual-level risks were significant: racial/ethnic minority, male gender, past risk history, placement instability, child behavioral problems, residence in group home or runaway. Remaining in foster care at age 19 reduced the odds of homelessness, incarceration, and substance abuse. Conclusion: Macro factors, including financial support for transition-age youth, and broader housing market characteristics, have a bearing on young adult outcomes, and raise policy questions across social and human service sectors.",
author = "Prince, {Dana M.} and Sarah Vidal and Nathanael Okpych and Christian Connell",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.05.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "74",
pages = "33--44",
journal = "Journal of Adolescence",
issn = "0140-1971",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

Effects of individual risk and state housing factors on adverse outcomes in a national sample of youth transitioning out of foster care. / Prince, Dana M.; Vidal, Sarah; Okpych, Nathanael; Connell, Christian.

In: Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 74, 01.07.2019, p. 33-44.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of individual risk and state housing factors on adverse outcomes in a national sample of youth transitioning out of foster care

AU - Prince, Dana M.

AU - Vidal, Sarah

AU - Okpych, Nathanael

AU - Connell, Christian

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - Introduction: Compared to their peers, youth who leave the foster care system without permanency experience greater risks for adverse young adult outcomes, including homelessness, incarceration, substance abuse, and early child birth. Extant literature focuses on individual-level factors related to adversity. In this study, we estimated the impact of state and individual-level risk and protective factors on adverse 19-year-old outcomes among a cohort of U.S. transition age youth. Methods: We used multilevel modeling to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from two waves of the National Youth in Transitions Database (N = 7449). These data were linked to the Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System, the Administration for Children and Families budget expenditures, and the American Community Survey for the period from 2011 to 2013. Results: Approximately 30% of the variation in each of the 19-year-old outcomes could be attributed to state-level effects. Residence in a state that spent above average of CFCIP budget on housing supports reduced the risk of homelessness and incarceration. Living in a state with a higher proportion of housing-burdened low-income renters significantly increased the risk of substance abuse and child birth. Individual-level risks were significant: racial/ethnic minority, male gender, past risk history, placement instability, child behavioral problems, residence in group home or runaway. Remaining in foster care at age 19 reduced the odds of homelessness, incarceration, and substance abuse. Conclusion: Macro factors, including financial support for transition-age youth, and broader housing market characteristics, have a bearing on young adult outcomes, and raise policy questions across social and human service sectors.

AB - Introduction: Compared to their peers, youth who leave the foster care system without permanency experience greater risks for adverse young adult outcomes, including homelessness, incarceration, substance abuse, and early child birth. Extant literature focuses on individual-level factors related to adversity. In this study, we estimated the impact of state and individual-level risk and protective factors on adverse 19-year-old outcomes among a cohort of U.S. transition age youth. Methods: We used multilevel modeling to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from two waves of the National Youth in Transitions Database (N = 7449). These data were linked to the Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System, the Administration for Children and Families budget expenditures, and the American Community Survey for the period from 2011 to 2013. Results: Approximately 30% of the variation in each of the 19-year-old outcomes could be attributed to state-level effects. Residence in a state that spent above average of CFCIP budget on housing supports reduced the risk of homelessness and incarceration. Living in a state with a higher proportion of housing-burdened low-income renters significantly increased the risk of substance abuse and child birth. Individual-level risks were significant: racial/ethnic minority, male gender, past risk history, placement instability, child behavioral problems, residence in group home or runaway. Remaining in foster care at age 19 reduced the odds of homelessness, incarceration, and substance abuse. Conclusion: Macro factors, including financial support for transition-age youth, and broader housing market characteristics, have a bearing on young adult outcomes, and raise policy questions across social and human service sectors.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066088383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066088383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.05.004

DO - 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.05.004

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 33

EP - 44

JO - Journal of Adolescence

JF - Journal of Adolescence

SN - 0140-1971

ER -