This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the effect of large scale high freestream turbulence intensity and exit Reynolds number on the surface heat transfer distribution of a turbine vane in a 2-D linear cascade at realistic engine Mach numbers. A passive turbulence grid was used to generate a freestream turbulence level of 16% and integral length scale normalized by the vane pitch of 0.23 at the cascade inlet. The baseline turbulence level and integral length scale normalized by the vane pitch at the cascade inlet were measured to be 2% and 0.05, respectively. Surface heat transfer measurements were made at the midspan of the vane using thin film gauges. Experiments were performed at exit Mach numbers of 0.55, 0.75 and 1.01 which represent flow conditions below, near, and above nominal conditions. The exit Mach numbers tested correspond to exit Reynolds numbers of 9 × 105,1.05 × 106, and 1.5 × 106, based on true chord. The experimental results showed that the large scale high freestream turbulence augmented the heat transfer on both the pressure and suction sides of the vane as compared to the low freestream turbulence case and promoted slightly earlier boundary layer transition on the suction surface for exit Mach 0.55 and 0.75. At nominal conditions, exit Mach 0.75, average heat transfer augmentations of 52% and 25% were observed on the pressure and suction side of the vane, respectively. An increased Reynolds number was found to induce earlier boundary layer transition on the vane suction surface and to increase heat transfer levels on the suction and pressure surfaces. On the suction side, the boundary layer transition length was also found to be affected by increase changes in Reynolds number. The experimental results also compared well with analytical correlations and CFD predictions.