Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation of a model fuel containing aromatic, sulfur and nitrogen compounds was conducted on activated carbon-based adsorbents. The results provided new insight into the adsorption properties (selectivity and capacity) of several metal-loaded carbon adsorbents for different compounds. Most of the loaded metals improved the adsorption capacity for DBT and quinoline while they did not increase that of 4,6-DMDBT and indole. Specifically, Ag improved most the adsorption capacity of DBT, but it was not good for nitrogen compounds. Ce improved the adsorption capacity for both quinoline and DBT in this study.