Effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation on early morning performance in the standing shot put throw

David M. Bellar, Gary Kamimori, Lawrence Judge, Jacob E. Barkley, Edward J. Ryan, Matthew Muller, Ellen L. Glickman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of low-dose caffeine use for early morning performance in the shot put event. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used to investigate the effects of buccal caffeine supplementation on early morning shot put execution in nine inter-collegiate track and field athletes. In one condition the participants received a piece of caffeinated gum designed to deliver 100 mg of caffeine in a buccal manner, and in a second condition a placebo gum. The gum was chewed for 5 min before being discarded. Participants then completed the first psychomotor vigilance task followed by a series of five warm-up throws, followed by six attempts with a shot put (7.26 kg for males, 4.0 kg for females) measured for distance. The protocol ended with a final psychomotor vigilance task. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (treatment*time) was used to compare performance between the caffeine and placebo treatments over the six measured attempts. A significant difference (treatment×throw) was observed (P=0.030, partial eta-squared = 0.259), indicating that the caffeine treatment produced better performance over the course of the six attempts subsequent to a warm-up. A paired samples t-test (Bonferroni-adjusted for multiple comparisons) revealed that the first attempt in the caffeine treatment (9.62±1.71 m) and in the placebo treatment (9.05±1.69 m) were significantly different (P = 0.050, effect size = 0.996, 95%CI 1.02 to 0.13 m). Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant (P=0.016, partial eta-squared = 0.650) interaction effect (treatment×mean reaction time), whereby both at the pre and post time points the mean reaction time on the psychomotor vigilance task was reduced under the caffeine treatment (caffeine: pre 0.306±0.05 s, post 0.316±0.08 s; placebo: pre 0.317±0.06 s, post 0.323±0.06 s). Based on these results, we suggest that caffeine gum can be beneficial for both performance and alertness if used by shot put athletes during early morning sessions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-61
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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