Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low-fat weight-loss diets on the serum lipid profile in overweight and obese men and women

Christine L. Pelkman, Valerie K. Fishell, Deborah H. Maddox, Thomas A. Pearson, David T. Mauger, Penny M. Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Little evidence of the effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) weight-loss diets on risk factors for cardiovascular disease exists because low-fat diets are typically recommended. Previous studies in weight-stable persons showed that a moderate-fat diet results in a more favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile (ie, lower serum triacylglycerol and higher HDL cholesterol) than does a low-fat diet. Objective: We evaluated the effects of energy-controlled, low-fat and moderate-fat diets on changes in lipids and lipoproteins during weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. Design: We conducted a parallel-arm study design in overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m2): 29.8 ± 2.4] healthy men and women (n = 53) assigned to consume a low-fat (18% of energy) or moderate-fat (33% of energy) diet for 6 wk to achieve weight loss, which was followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. All foods were provided and body weight was monitored to ensure equal weight loss between groups. Results: The moderate-fat diet elicited favorable changes in the lipoprotein profile. Compared with baseline, HDL cholesterol was unchanged, whereas triacylglycerol and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were lower at the end of the weight-maintenance period in the moderate-fat diet group. Despite similar weight loss, triacylglycerol rebounded, HDL cholesterol decreased, and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol did not change during the 10-wk interval in the low-fat diet group. Conclusions: A moderate-fat weight-loss and weight-maintenance diet improves the cardiovascular disease risk profile on the basis of favorable changes in lipids and lipoproteins. There is merit in recommending a moderate-fat weight-loss diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-212
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume79
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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