Effects of motivation phase intervention components on quit attempts in smokers unwilling to quit

A factorial experiment

Jessica L. Engle, Robin Mermelstein, Timothy B. Baker, Stevens S. Smith, Tanya R. Schlam, Megan E. Piper, Douglas E. Jorenby, Linda Marie Collins, Jessica W. Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Smoking reduction treatment is a promising approach to increase abstinence amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit. However, little is known about which reduction treatment elements increase quit attempts and the uptake of cessation treatment amongst such smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a 4-factor randomized factorial experiment conducted amongst primary care patients (N = 517) presenting for regular healthcare visits in Southern Wisconsin who were unwilling to quit smoking but willing to cut down. We evaluated the main and interactive effects of Motivation-phase intervention components on whether participants: 1) made a quit attempt (intentional abstinence ≥24 h) by 6- and 26-weeks post-study enrollment and, 2) used cessation treatment. We also evaluated the relations of quit attempts with abstinence. The four intervention components evaluated were: 1) Nicotine Patch vs. None; 2) Nicotine Gum vs. None; 3) Motivational Interviewing (MI) vs. None; and 4) Behavioral Reduction Counseling (BR) vs. None. Intervention components were administered over 6 weeks, with an option to repeat treatment; participants could request cessation treatment at any point. Results: Nicotine gum significantly increased the likelihood of making a quit attempt by 6 weeks (23% vs. 15% without gum; p <.05). Conversely, nicotine patch reduced quit attempts when used with BR. Patch also discouraged use of cessation treatment (15.8% vs. 23% without patch; p <.05). Aided vs. unaided quit attempts produced abstinence in 42% vs. 10% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: Nicotine gum is a promising Motivation-phase intervention that may spur quit attempts amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-157
Number of pages9
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume197
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019

Fingerprint

Withholding Treatment
Motivation
Nicotine
Tobacco Use Cessation Products
Counseling
Smoking
Experiments
Motivational Interviewing
Gingiva
Primary Health Care
Therapeutics
Delivery of Health Care

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Engle, Jessica L. ; Mermelstein, Robin ; Baker, Timothy B. ; Smith, Stevens S. ; Schlam, Tanya R. ; Piper, Megan E. ; Jorenby, Douglas E. ; Collins, Linda Marie ; Cook, Jessica W. / Effects of motivation phase intervention components on quit attempts in smokers unwilling to quit : A factorial experiment. In: Drug and alcohol dependence. 2019 ; Vol. 197. pp. 149-157.
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abstract = "Background: Smoking reduction treatment is a promising approach to increase abstinence amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit. However, little is known about which reduction treatment elements increase quit attempts and the uptake of cessation treatment amongst such smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a 4-factor randomized factorial experiment conducted amongst primary care patients (N = 517) presenting for regular healthcare visits in Southern Wisconsin who were unwilling to quit smoking but willing to cut down. We evaluated the main and interactive effects of Motivation-phase intervention components on whether participants: 1) made a quit attempt (intentional abstinence ≥24 h) by 6- and 26-weeks post-study enrollment and, 2) used cessation treatment. We also evaluated the relations of quit attempts with abstinence. The four intervention components evaluated were: 1) Nicotine Patch vs. None; 2) Nicotine Gum vs. None; 3) Motivational Interviewing (MI) vs. None; and 4) Behavioral Reduction Counseling (BR) vs. None. Intervention components were administered over 6 weeks, with an option to repeat treatment; participants could request cessation treatment at any point. Results: Nicotine gum significantly increased the likelihood of making a quit attempt by 6 weeks (23{\%} vs. 15{\%} without gum; p <.05). Conversely, nicotine patch reduced quit attempts when used with BR. Patch also discouraged use of cessation treatment (15.8{\%} vs. 23{\%} without patch; p <.05). Aided vs. unaided quit attempts produced abstinence in 42{\%} vs. 10{\%} of participants, respectively. Conclusion: Nicotine gum is a promising Motivation-phase intervention that may spur quit attempts amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit.",
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Effects of motivation phase intervention components on quit attempts in smokers unwilling to quit : A factorial experiment. / Engle, Jessica L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Baker, Timothy B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Piper, Megan E.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Collins, Linda Marie; Cook, Jessica W.

In: Drug and alcohol dependence, Vol. 197, 01.04.2019, p. 149-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of motivation phase intervention components on quit attempts in smokers unwilling to quit

T2 - A factorial experiment

AU - Engle, Jessica L.

AU - Mermelstein, Robin

AU - Baker, Timothy B.

AU - Smith, Stevens S.

AU - Schlam, Tanya R.

AU - Piper, Megan E.

AU - Jorenby, Douglas E.

AU - Collins, Linda Marie

AU - Cook, Jessica W.

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Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - Background: Smoking reduction treatment is a promising approach to increase abstinence amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit. However, little is known about which reduction treatment elements increase quit attempts and the uptake of cessation treatment amongst such smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a 4-factor randomized factorial experiment conducted amongst primary care patients (N = 517) presenting for regular healthcare visits in Southern Wisconsin who were unwilling to quit smoking but willing to cut down. We evaluated the main and interactive effects of Motivation-phase intervention components on whether participants: 1) made a quit attempt (intentional abstinence ≥24 h) by 6- and 26-weeks post-study enrollment and, 2) used cessation treatment. We also evaluated the relations of quit attempts with abstinence. The four intervention components evaluated were: 1) Nicotine Patch vs. None; 2) Nicotine Gum vs. None; 3) Motivational Interviewing (MI) vs. None; and 4) Behavioral Reduction Counseling (BR) vs. None. Intervention components were administered over 6 weeks, with an option to repeat treatment; participants could request cessation treatment at any point. Results: Nicotine gum significantly increased the likelihood of making a quit attempt by 6 weeks (23% vs. 15% without gum; p <.05). Conversely, nicotine patch reduced quit attempts when used with BR. Patch also discouraged use of cessation treatment (15.8% vs. 23% without patch; p <.05). Aided vs. unaided quit attempts produced abstinence in 42% vs. 10% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: Nicotine gum is a promising Motivation-phase intervention that may spur quit attempts amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit.

AB - Background: Smoking reduction treatment is a promising approach to increase abstinence amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit. However, little is known about which reduction treatment elements increase quit attempts and the uptake of cessation treatment amongst such smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a 4-factor randomized factorial experiment conducted amongst primary care patients (N = 517) presenting for regular healthcare visits in Southern Wisconsin who were unwilling to quit smoking but willing to cut down. We evaluated the main and interactive effects of Motivation-phase intervention components on whether participants: 1) made a quit attempt (intentional abstinence ≥24 h) by 6- and 26-weeks post-study enrollment and, 2) used cessation treatment. We also evaluated the relations of quit attempts with abstinence. The four intervention components evaluated were: 1) Nicotine Patch vs. None; 2) Nicotine Gum vs. None; 3) Motivational Interviewing (MI) vs. None; and 4) Behavioral Reduction Counseling (BR) vs. None. Intervention components were administered over 6 weeks, with an option to repeat treatment; participants could request cessation treatment at any point. Results: Nicotine gum significantly increased the likelihood of making a quit attempt by 6 weeks (23% vs. 15% without gum; p <.05). Conversely, nicotine patch reduced quit attempts when used with BR. Patch also discouraged use of cessation treatment (15.8% vs. 23% without patch; p <.05). Aided vs. unaided quit attempts produced abstinence in 42% vs. 10% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: Nicotine gum is a promising Motivation-phase intervention that may spur quit attempts amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit.

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