Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: A dose-response study

Sarah K. Gebauer, Sheila Grace West, Colin D. Kay, Petar Alaupovic, Deborah Bagshaw, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Nut consumption lowers cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Studies are lacking about the effects of pistachios, a nutrient-dense nut, on CVD risk factors, dose-response relations, and lipid-lowering mechanisms. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 2 doses of pistachios, added to a lower-fat diet, on lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoprotein (apo)-defined lipoprotein subclasses, and plasma fatty acids. To investigate the mechanisms of action, we measured cholesteryl ester transfer protein and indexes of plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD). Design: In a randomized crossover controlled-feeding study, 28 individuals with LDL cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each. Baseline measures were assessed after 2 wk of a typical Western diet. The experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet with no pistachios [25% total fat; 8% saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 9% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and 5% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)], 1 serving/d of a pistachio diet (1 PD; 10% of energy from pistachios; 30% total fat; 8% SFAs, 12% MUFAs, and 6% PUFAs), and 2 servings/d of a pistachio diet (2 PD; 20% of energy from pistachios; 34% total fat; 8% SFAs, 15% MUFAs, and 8% PUFAs). Results: The 2 PD decreased (P < 0.05 compared with the control diet) total cholesterol (-8%), LDL cholesterol (-11.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (-11%), apo B (-4%), apo B/apo A-I (-4%), and plasma SCD activity (-1%). The 1 PD and 2 PD, respectively, elicited a dose-dependent lowering (P < 0.05) of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-1% and -8%), LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-3% and -11%), and non-HDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-2% and -10%). Conclusions: Inclusion of pistachios in a healthy diet beneficially affects CVD risk factors in a dose-dependent manner, which may reflect effects on SCD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)651-659
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume88
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2008

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Pistacia
Action Potentials
Cardiovascular Diseases
Diet
Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
Fats
Fatty Acids
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Nuts
Apolipoproteins B
Lipoproteins
Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
Lipids
Apolipoproteins
Apolipoprotein A-I
Food

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{97e5c73a813c40a29a26c6ad0e3ce374,
title = "Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: A dose-response study",
abstract = "Background: Nut consumption lowers cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Studies are lacking about the effects of pistachios, a nutrient-dense nut, on CVD risk factors, dose-response relations, and lipid-lowering mechanisms. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 2 doses of pistachios, added to a lower-fat diet, on lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoprotein (apo)-defined lipoprotein subclasses, and plasma fatty acids. To investigate the mechanisms of action, we measured cholesteryl ester transfer protein and indexes of plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD). Design: In a randomized crossover controlled-feeding study, 28 individuals with LDL cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each. Baseline measures were assessed after 2 wk of a typical Western diet. The experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet with no pistachios [25{\%} total fat; 8{\%} saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 9{\%} monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and 5{\%} polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)], 1 serving/d of a pistachio diet (1 PD; 10{\%} of energy from pistachios; 30{\%} total fat; 8{\%} SFAs, 12{\%} MUFAs, and 6{\%} PUFAs), and 2 servings/d of a pistachio diet (2 PD; 20{\%} of energy from pistachios; 34{\%} total fat; 8{\%} SFAs, 15{\%} MUFAs, and 8{\%} PUFAs). Results: The 2 PD decreased (P < 0.05 compared with the control diet) total cholesterol (-8{\%}), LDL cholesterol (-11.6{\%}), non-HDL cholesterol (-11{\%}), apo B (-4{\%}), apo B/apo A-I (-4{\%}), and plasma SCD activity (-1{\%}). The 1 PD and 2 PD, respectively, elicited a dose-dependent lowering (P < 0.05) of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-1{\%} and -8{\%}), LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-3{\%} and -11{\%}), and non-HDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-2{\%} and -10{\%}). Conclusions: Inclusion of pistachios in a healthy diet beneficially affects CVD risk factors in a dose-dependent manner, which may reflect effects on SCD.",
author = "Gebauer, {Sarah K.} and West, {Sheila Grace} and Kay, {Colin D.} and Petar Alaupovic and Deborah Bagshaw and Kris-Etherton, {Penny Margaret}",
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Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action : A dose-response study. / Gebauer, Sarah K.; West, Sheila Grace; Kay, Colin D.; Alaupovic, Petar; Bagshaw, Deborah; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 3, 01.09.2008, p. 651-659.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action

T2 - A dose-response study

AU - Gebauer, Sarah K.

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - Kay, Colin D.

AU - Alaupovic, Petar

AU - Bagshaw, Deborah

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

PY - 2008/9/1

Y1 - 2008/9/1

N2 - Background: Nut consumption lowers cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Studies are lacking about the effects of pistachios, a nutrient-dense nut, on CVD risk factors, dose-response relations, and lipid-lowering mechanisms. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 2 doses of pistachios, added to a lower-fat diet, on lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoprotein (apo)-defined lipoprotein subclasses, and plasma fatty acids. To investigate the mechanisms of action, we measured cholesteryl ester transfer protein and indexes of plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD). Design: In a randomized crossover controlled-feeding study, 28 individuals with LDL cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each. Baseline measures were assessed after 2 wk of a typical Western diet. The experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet with no pistachios [25% total fat; 8% saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 9% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and 5% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)], 1 serving/d of a pistachio diet (1 PD; 10% of energy from pistachios; 30% total fat; 8% SFAs, 12% MUFAs, and 6% PUFAs), and 2 servings/d of a pistachio diet (2 PD; 20% of energy from pistachios; 34% total fat; 8% SFAs, 15% MUFAs, and 8% PUFAs). Results: The 2 PD decreased (P < 0.05 compared with the control diet) total cholesterol (-8%), LDL cholesterol (-11.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (-11%), apo B (-4%), apo B/apo A-I (-4%), and plasma SCD activity (-1%). The 1 PD and 2 PD, respectively, elicited a dose-dependent lowering (P < 0.05) of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-1% and -8%), LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-3% and -11%), and non-HDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-2% and -10%). Conclusions: Inclusion of pistachios in a healthy diet beneficially affects CVD risk factors in a dose-dependent manner, which may reflect effects on SCD.

AB - Background: Nut consumption lowers cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Studies are lacking about the effects of pistachios, a nutrient-dense nut, on CVD risk factors, dose-response relations, and lipid-lowering mechanisms. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 2 doses of pistachios, added to a lower-fat diet, on lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoprotein (apo)-defined lipoprotein subclasses, and plasma fatty acids. To investigate the mechanisms of action, we measured cholesteryl ester transfer protein and indexes of plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD). Design: In a randomized crossover controlled-feeding study, 28 individuals with LDL cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each. Baseline measures were assessed after 2 wk of a typical Western diet. The experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet with no pistachios [25% total fat; 8% saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 9% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and 5% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)], 1 serving/d of a pistachio diet (1 PD; 10% of energy from pistachios; 30% total fat; 8% SFAs, 12% MUFAs, and 6% PUFAs), and 2 servings/d of a pistachio diet (2 PD; 20% of energy from pistachios; 34% total fat; 8% SFAs, 15% MUFAs, and 8% PUFAs). Results: The 2 PD decreased (P < 0.05 compared with the control diet) total cholesterol (-8%), LDL cholesterol (-11.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (-11%), apo B (-4%), apo B/apo A-I (-4%), and plasma SCD activity (-1%). The 1 PD and 2 PD, respectively, elicited a dose-dependent lowering (P < 0.05) of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-1% and -8%), LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-3% and -11%), and non-HDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (-2% and -10%). Conclusions: Inclusion of pistachios in a healthy diet beneficially affects CVD risk factors in a dose-dependent manner, which may reflect effects on SCD.

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