The passage of the US Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in 1996 mandated that all pesticides in the US undergo re-registration with a focus on reducing cumulative risk of exposure to pesticides sharing a common mode of action. Enforcement of FQPA has resulted in the modification of use patterns and removal (or pending removal) of many organophosphate (OP) insecticides that had previously seen wide use. The FQPA-mandated changes in pesticide use patterns and new pesticide registrations are providing challenges to integrated pest management (IPM) practitioners but, at the same time, are providing opportunities to develop more ecologically balanced IPM programs. We present the case of the US apple industry, where IPM programs are in the midst of the transition from OPs used for the last 50+ years to newer pesticide chemistries, use of mating disruption for key lepidopteran pests, and greater emphasis on biological control. The new IPM programs being developed are more information intensive and will require a renewed focus on research, deployment of new technologies, and enhanced educational programs for long-term success.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Insect Science