Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance

Daniel A. Judelson, Amy G. Preston, Debra Lynn Miller, Colleen X. Muñoz, Mark D. Kellogg, Harris R. Lieberman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23 [3] years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P < 0.005). At every dose tested, theobromine failed to consistently affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)499-506
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013

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Theobromine
Caffeine
Beverages
Lethargy
Purinergic P1 Receptors
Blood-Brain Barrier
Self Report
Fatigue
Food

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Judelson, D. A., Preston, A. G., Miller, D. L., Muñoz, C. X., Kellogg, M. D., & Lieberman, H. R. (2013). Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 33(4), 499-506. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182905d24
Judelson, Daniel A. ; Preston, Amy G. ; Miller, Debra Lynn ; Muñoz, Colleen X. ; Kellogg, Mark D. ; Lieberman, Harris R. / Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. In: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2013 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. pp. 499-506.
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Judelson, DA, Preston, AG, Miller, DL, Muñoz, CX, Kellogg, MD & Lieberman, HR 2013, 'Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance', Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 499-506. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182905d24

Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. / Judelson, Daniel A.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra Lynn; Muñoz, Colleen X.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Lieberman, Harris R.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 33, No. 4, 01.08.2013, p. 499-506.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Judelson DA, Preston AG, Miller DL, Muñoz CX, Kellogg MD, Lieberman HR. Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2013 Aug 1;33(4):499-506. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182905d24