Ethofumesate is a widely used herbicide for control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) fairways on golf courses in the United States. Effect of timing of ethofumesate application on development of gray leaf spot was evaluated on perennial ryegrass turf treated with six classes of fungicide. Two applications of ethofumesate (2.28 kg a.i./ha) were made to perennial ryegrass turf maintained at a 2-cm height, at 4-week intervals, each fall (October and November 1999 and 2000) or spring (April and May 2000 and 2001). In addition, turf was treated with the fungicides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, flutolanil, iprodione, propiconazole, or thiophanate-methyl at the label rates at 14-day intervals. There were significant effects (P ≤ 0.05) of ethofumesate application timing and fungicide regime on gray leaf spot development. There also were significant interactions between the ethofumesate application timing and fungicide. Severity of gray leaf spot was significantly greater in turf plots treated with ethofumesate in spring compared to turf treated in fall or nontreated control plots treated with fungicides, flutolanil, iprodione, and propiconazole that were relatively less effective in control of gray leaf spot. There was no significant difference in disease severity in turf treated with ethofumesate in fall or to turf not treated with herbicide regardless of the fungicide used. Results of this study indicate that spring application of ethofumesate contributes to development of gray leaf spot epidemics, and the application timing interacts with the classes of fungicides. This study suggests that ethofumesate should be applied only in fall for control of P. annua, particularly in golf courses with a chronic gray leaf spot problem, as part of an integrated management of gray leaf spot in perennial ryegrass fairways.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science