Effects of varying sex pheromone component ratios on the zigzagging flight movements of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta

Mark A. Willis, Thomas C. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Scopus citations


As the ratio of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (E8-12:Ac) to (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) increased past optimal low levels in the pheromone blend, fewer males were able to fly 2.5 m upwind to the source. The tracks of males that flew in plumes of such high-(E)off-blends were slower and narrower than those of males flying to lower-(E)blends. The tracks were narrower, first of all, because as the proportion of E8-12:Ac increased, the males steered more into the wind. More of their thrust was directed upwind and therefore their groundspeed to either side of the windline was reduced. In addition, males also reduced their airspeeds to high-(E)blends, which contributed to the decreased groundspeeds and narrower tracks. No significant changes in the frequency of counterturning were found in response to increasing proportions of E8-12:Ac. The inability to continue upwind flight in a plume of an off ratio was indicated by in-flight arrestment in the plume. Arrestment resulted from changes in the course angles steered by the males and the airspeeds flown.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-371
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Insect Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 1988


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Insect Science

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