EGb 761 promotes osteoblastogenesis, lowers bone marrow adipogenesis and atherosclerotic plaque formation

Jyoti Gautam, Priyanka Kushwaha, Gaurav Swarnkar, Vikram Khedgikar, Geet K. Nagar, Divya Singh, Vishal Singh, Manish Jain, Manoj Barthwal, Ritu Trivedi

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Abstract

Aim of the study: Our earlier study has demonstrated that EGb 761 (standardized extract of Ginkgo) has the bone sparing effect on the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss model. In the present study, we have addressed the question whether treatment of osteoporosis benefits arterial calcification or vice versa, because both adipocyte and osteoblast originate from the same mesenchymal cell of the bone marrow cell (BMC) population. Materials and methods: Bone marrow cells were isolated to study the effect of EGb 761 on osteoblast and adipocytes. For in vivo effect hamsters were fed high fat diet and the effect of EGb 761 studied on atherosclerotic plaque formation and endothelial function. Results: BMC's undergoing induced osteogenic or adipogenic differentiations in the presence of EGb 761 show increase and decrease in mineralization and adipogenesis respectively. Osteogenic and adipogenic mRNAs, reveal lineage dependent expression patterns. Runx-2 (osteoblast transcription factor) showed a progressive increase, whereas PPAR-γ (adipogenic regulator) was attenuated, with same pattern of expression being for late osteogenic and adipogenic genes. EGb 761 led to increase in apoptotic cells and ROS, an important upstream signal. In vivo experiments in hamsters after induction with high cholesterol diet (HCD) show improvement in endothelial function by EGb 761 with lowering in total plasma cholesterol levels. EGb 761 led to vascular preservation of the aortic lumen with impairment of the endothelium dependent relaxation which was corroborated by micro-CT and histological sections of the thoracic region of the aorta. Conclusion: From this data, it can be implied that EGb 761 controls bone loss, adiposity and lowers atherogenic risk factor after HCD induction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1134-1142
Number of pages9
JournalPhytomedicine
Volume19
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 15 2012

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Gautam, J., Kushwaha, P., Swarnkar, G., Khedgikar, V., Nagar, G. K., Singh, D., ... Trivedi, R. (2012). EGb 761 promotes osteoblastogenesis, lowers bone marrow adipogenesis and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Phytomedicine, 19(12), 1134-1142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.07.005